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Kingdom of Caldia
Ríocht na Ghlítteann
Motto: "Do Rí agus Saoirse"
"For King and Liberty"
Anthem: "Glaoch na Ghlítteann"
and largest city
|Ethnic groups||no official statistics|
|Demonym(s)||Caldish · Caldian|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Stiofán Mac Suibhne|
• A unified Ghaillish kingdom established
• Kingdom of Caldia established
• Joined the EC
|1 January 1955|
|222,029 km2 (85,726 sq mi)|
• 2011 census
|41.69/km2 (108.0/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2013 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2012)|| 29.7|
|HDI (2012)|| 0.917|
|Currency||Euclo (EUC (€))|
|Time zone||Euclean Standard Time|
|ISO 3166 code||GLT|
Caldia (Ghaillish: Ghlítteann), officially the Kingdom of Caldia (Ghaillish: Ríocht na Ghlítteann), is a sovereign nation located in Northern Euclea. It is completely surrounded by water, made up by the Caldish Isles. Caldia has an estimated nine million seven hundred thousand inhabitants. Consequently, it has a low population density of 24 inhabitants per square kilometre (62/sq mi), with the highest concentration on the country's southern coast. Approximately 85% of the population lives in urban areas. Southern Caldia is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested and mountainous, particularly in the Highlands.
Tenic peoples have inhabited Caldia since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Ghailles. Caldia emerged as a unified country for the first time in the 11th century. Since unification, it has been involved in several major civil wars and has participated in a number of Euclean and colonial conflicts. Caldia was a colonial power, establishing oversees dominions in Asteria Superior during the seventeenth century. Due to its historical adversary with Solarian Catholic Church, Caldia was one of the first to break away during the Amendist Schism. It fought during the Religious Wars on the Amendist side and had to quell domestic rebellion during the Dejarlist Wars. The last war Caldia was directly involved in was the fourth and final Gilded War. Democratic governance was first introduced in a limited capacity in 1814 and was universally expanded in 1857 through the Silent Revolution. For over a century the government has maintained an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. Though it was formally neutral throughout the Great War, Caldia was occupied by the Grand Alliance. Despite the occupation, the nation still partook in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from Gaullican-occupied Euclea. Caldia joined the Community of Nations in 1936 and became a member of the Euclean Community in 1955. Throughout the Great Game, Caldia has maintained its official policy of neutrality despite membership in the EC. However, in recent years the country has moved closer to Gaullica.
Today, Caldia is a constitutional monarchy with a unitary, parliamentary system of governance, consisting of twenty six counties. The current Monarch is Kenneth IV, who acts as the head of state. Its capital city is Spálgleann, which is also the most populous city in the country with an urban population of 1,372,565. Legislative power is vested in the bicameral Tionól. Executive power is exercised by the government, chaired by the taoiseach, currently Stiofán Mac Suibhne.
The country is well known throughout the world for its long record of promoting extensive civil and human rights and its bold steps in order to create equal opportunity for all throughout the world. In recent years, the nation’s foreign policy has been dominated by the Walker Doctrine, which calls for the protection of various minority groups. The government pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. Caldia is an active member of the Euclean Community and is a member of the Euclozone. It is also a member of the League of Oil Producing States, the International Trade Organisation, and the Global Institute for Fiscal Affairs.
Caldia is also renowned for its natural beauty, and as such is a tourist destination for nations all over the world. The Caldish Highlands are one of the most visited regions of the countries. The island of Holyhead also sees thousands of visitors each years and is known for its beaches and gambling industry, centered in Pennsea.
The country ranks high in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, economic competitiveness, and human development. Many adult citizens tend to be among the wealthiest in the world in both financial and non-financial assets. The Caldish Education System is a major component in the country's status in global prominence and contributes to the growth of the economy as well as the overall quality of life for Caldishs. It is is considered one of the happiest countries in the world and boasts the second highest life expectancy in the world. Major cities, such as the capital of Spálgleann and the city of Invertwinc, have been ranked among the top cities with the highest quality of life in the world. Caldia is often regarded as a tax haven for foreigners and foreign businesses.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture
Caldia is derived from the tribal name Caledones (or Calīdones), which is etymologized as "'possessing hard feet', alluding to standfastness or endurance", from the Proto-Tenic roots *kal- "hard" and *φēdo- "foot". The Caledones were a tribe living on the southern coast of the main island. They were encountered by the Solarians, who in turn named the island chain after them. It was Solarianized as Calidonia, which was later Estmericized to Caldia. This is reflected in the Solarian-influenced languages. The name Calidonia is rarely used in modern contexts, but it is used to describe the religious denomination of the Church of Caldia. Historically, people from Caldia were referred to as Calidonians in Euclean written records. Overtime, this was shortened to Caldians but this has mostly fallen out of use. People from Caldia are today described as the Caldish.
The Ghaillish name for the country is Glítteann. There is some disagreement about the meaning of the name. It is widely speculated to have been derived from "shinning land" in old Ghaillish. The modern Ghaillish word glioscarnach means "shining". It is believed the first three letters are used to form the first component of the name: Glítt-. The second component is believed to come from lann or ferann meaning "land". It is also believed that -eann is a genitive suffix for either lann or ferann.
However, this theory is criticized by some academics who note the lack of explanation for the additional letters in Glítteann not found in either component. Others note that glioscarnach was not commonly used until middle Ghaillish. Caindlech and lainnerda were commonly used as the words for "shining" in old Ghaillish. The exact origin of the name Glítteann remains disputed, but no alternative theory with wide backing has emerged.
The earliest evidence of human settlement in Caldia dates back to the arrival of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers some time after 8000 BCE, when the climate had become more hospitable following the retreat of the polar icecaps. Archaeological evidence indicates that these people sailed from Ordennya before reaching Caldia. Some possible Paleolithic tools have been found, but those excavated are not convincing of Paleolithic settlement. Caldia was mostly covered in ice until around 9000 years ago, making it harder for human settlement. Following the retreat of the polar icecaps, the Caldish isles became more hospitable.
In around 4500 BCE, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, a housing culture, and stone monuments. It was at this time a more advanced agriculture developed, with the inhabitants of Caldia moving away from hunter-gathering. The Chéide Fields show how agricultural practices evolved over time. A high neolithic culture began, resulting in he appearance of pottery, polished stone tools, rectangular wooden houses and communal megalithic tombs. Technology used by the islands' inhabitants changed significantly during the Bronze Age. Practices such as harnessing oxen, weaving textiles, brewing alcohol, and skillful metalworking emerged during this period. Evidence of crafted jewelry and the use of the wheel can also be traced to Caldia during the Bronze Age. Burial practices also changed, with a shift away from communal tombs to the use of small stone cists or simple pits.
The Tenic language and culture emerged during the Iron Age. Tenic peoples from the Euclean mainland migrated to Caldia, bringing with them Tenic languages, Ogham script, and culture. Evidence indicates there were four separate Tenic invasions of Caldia, with the Laighin, Euerni, Belgae, and Caledones migrating at different points. The Caledon invasion took place in about the sixth century BCE. Caledones is the first recorded name given to the Ghailles. These groups These early Tenic societies organized themselves into tribes, which are often labeled by historians as confederacies.
Caldia is first described in a written source in 96 CE by SOLARIAN AUTHOR. In A WORK, the Caledones are described as a powerful tribe that dominated the Caldish islands. They are noted for their use of longa fada and differential marital practices. It is the first time that the name Calidonia appears in a written work. WORK NAME is also the first recorded instance of what could be considered a same-sex marriage. Little is known about who ruled over the Caldedones is unknown, but Ghaillish mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary monarchs going back for thousands of years. While the Solarian Empire never established itself in northern Euclea, there are written accounts that show interaction between the Solarians and the Caledones.
During the sixth century the various tribal confederacies had begun to move away from their tribal based societies and instead began to become organized into various túatha. The term refers to both a geographical territory and the people who lived on that territory. The túatha shared their names with the most powerful clan in a specified area. They were separated into the In the High Túatha large groups of clans sworn to one High Clan, and the Low Túatha, smaller groupings of clans or singular clans. In the High Túatha, leaders were referred to as the rí/ríon while leaders in the Low Túatha were known as the mór, Among the túatha four powerful Ghaillish over-kingdoms began to emerge: Aerach, Diabhal, Mumgialla, and Laithraid. These dominate over-kingdoms often warred with one another and the smaller realms around them.
Sotirianity first arrived in Caldia during this period. Tradition maintains that Saint Adomnán first arrived on the island of Holyhead, then known as Dhùn Ghlais, in 711. Soon after, he established a monastery in Inagh and worked to convert the Ghaillies. Adomnán is traditionally credited with preserving and codifying Ghaillish laws. The introduction of the Solarian alphabet by Saint Adomnán allowed monks to preserve large swathes of the extensive oral literature, law, and history which had existed in the Caldia. The monastic order he established was met with great success and the religion began to spread to the other islands, taking hold in large coastal settlements.
A marriage pact between Aerach and Diabhal resulted in an alliance and later unification. Togther, Daireann of Aerach and her husband, Torán of Diabah, launched a campaign to unite the Caldish isles. In about 718 Daireann, with the support of her husband's forces, began rallying her armies and launched a campaign to unify the islands. She first took the southern islands of Dhùn Ghlais and Mannhain, uniting all of southern Glytter. After a series of victories, she a number of the túatha pledged fealty to Daireann. This solidified her victories and bolstered her armies. Following a harsh winter, her armies launched a campaign to conquer the highlands and islands in spring 720. After a series of clashes with the Clan Mac Coinneach, who rallied a number of minor clans to their cause, Daireann successfully unified Caldia under her rule. In June of 720, Darieann declared the Kingdom of the Ghailles, with herself as Queen. Chluaitch, the ancestral seat of the Mac Ailláns, was declared the capital of the new kingdom, with the monarchs residing in Dun Seoda.
The Kingdom of Ghailles
The kingdom established by Darieann was a largely de-centralized realm. The existing clan structure was mostly retained, with the larger, more powerful clans swearing allegiance to the monarch and lower clans serving as vassals of the high clans, or as direct vassals of the crown. Clan chieftains enjoyed significant freedoms over the territory they governed. Darieann's direct influence was limited to the lands surrounding the capital. Elsewhere, her role was mainly as an arbitrator in disputes between clans. Taxes were limited, and most clans paid them in the form of cattle. The traditional Tenic practice of tanistry was adopted and use to name the tanist. The déisi, a council of the clan leaders, convened at Liathdruim to name Darieann's eldest daughter, Niamh, as her heir. Her selection saw the beginning of Clan Ní Darieann as the ruling dynasty. This began a long tradition of conventions in which the chiefs would vote for a member of the ruling house to serve as the next monarch. The déisi met every ten years and a sitting tanist would have retain the support of the majority in order to remain as heir. Tanistry was solidified as the Caldish law of succession during the rule of Darieann and a modified version is still in use today.
During the reign of Ailbe I, the first bishop was sent by Solaria to serve over the newly-created diocese of Caldia. Saint Bono arrived in worked in 785 and worked closely with the monarch and Sotirianity continued to spread. Going against the precedent set by Saint Adomnán, Ailbe began to enforce a version of Sotirianity that was much more in line with Solaria. Same-sex relationships were forbidden, women could no longer be named as the tanist, Bono was murdered by a pagan mob in 789 and Ailbe responded with force, leading a campaign of violence against the pagan population of Caldia. Clan leaders, who were opposed to her adoption of a hard-line form of Sotirianity, named her daughter, Morcan, as the tanist, at a meeting of the déisi. Her refusal to recognize Morcan's selection as the tanist resulted in Ailbe's assassination in 791. Reversing many of her mother's policies, Morcan sough to restore the balance between Caldia's native pantheon and Sotirianity. She introduced one of the first taxes levied by the crown, placing a tax on non-Sotirians which in turn guaranteed their freedom from persecution. The tax resulted in a significant increase in conversions to Sotirianity. However, it did not begin to fully replace paganism until the 12th century. Paganism was widely practiced in the Caldish Highlands until the end of the 12th century.
First starting under Morcan, several villages grew into large cities. The expansion of the population required additional resources, which were at times limited. Evidence indicates groups of Ghaillish pirates began to conduct raids along the coasts of Ordennya, Fierenland, and northern Werania. Raids brought resources, livestock, and slaves back to Caldia, allowing settlements to grow further. Some of these raiding groups established entirely new kingdoms in along the eastern coast of Ordennya and in northern Fierenland. To a lesser degree, some new realms were established as far south as Estmere. Raiding activity reached its peak under Lughaidh I, who personally commanded a fleet of raiders that targeted settlements in northern Euclea Caldish galleys have been recorded reaching Tsabara and Kansasto. Folklore surrounding Saint Brendan of Caldia suggests he lead of raiders to a land in the far east, which could be Asteria Superior. However, there is no conclusive evidence to suggest Ghaillish pirates reached the Asterias during this period. The practice began to decline in the eleventh century following the introduction of feudalism in southern Caldia.
The first recorded instance of a monarch in a same-sex marriage occurred in 878 following the ascension of Lughaidh II. He had been named as tanist despite strong opposition from rivals within the righdamhna and from orthodox Sotirian members of the déisi. Lughaidh was married to Breasal, a prominent warrior from the powerful Mac Raith family. Crónán Mac Darieann, a prominent cousin of the king with several close alliances, launched a rebellion in order to usurp the throne. Lughaidh was successful and executed many of those who had risen against him. He named Barnabas as bishop of Caldia and as anti-pope. Cultural clashes between Caldia and Solaria had risen significantly following Lughaidh's accession and a rift emerged. His victory in the rebellion is considered significant by historians, as it allowed same-sex relationships to remain a norm within Ghaillish society and began the long process of Caldia's split with Solaria.
The limited role of the crown in the political affairs of the realm slowly degraded over time. A period of decline first began under Morcan IV and continued to the reign of Tomaisin II. By his ascent to the in 987, many of the clans had stopped paying their duties and those sworn directly to the monarch established themselves as mostly independent. His reign was characterized by lavish expenditures and vast corruption, draining the treasury and driving the crown to bankruptcy. The royal herd, the largest in Caldia, was gradually bartered off in order to maintain Tomaisin's lifestyle. The king did not fulfill his role as arbitrator, which saw disputes between clans escalate to war. A revolt against Tomaisin's rule by uncle, Mánus, was in the process of being organized by 989. In order to prevent civil war, Tomaisin was murdered by members of the court loyal to the tanist, his daughter Ailbe. She ascended to the throne and made peace with her uncle, naming him head of her armies and granting him new territories. Ailbe issued a number of reforms at the start of her reign in order to reestablish the influence of the crown. The reformed the kingdom into the Kingdom of Caldia on 20 May 1017. Economic reforms were also implemented. For the first time, the crown levied a feudal tax Incentives were introduced to encourage a shift towards mercantilism, resulting in an increase in merchants and traders. The Kingdom of Caldia was organized as a feudal monarchy that granted new authority to the monarchs they were previously unable to exercise. Power was solidified in the south, isolating the clans in the mountain highlands. The densely populated and resource-rich lowlands surpassed the highlands in wealth. A confederacy of highland clans rebelled against Ailbe to secure independence, but were defeated in 1021.
A diplomatic mission from the newly-established Verique Kingdom of Embria resulted in a cultural exchange between Caldia and Embria. Fiona I received several prominent Embrians at court and aligned herself closely with them. On their advice, Fiona implemented the first Papal Taxation register, resulting in the first Caldish census and list of properties. For their service as advisers at court, they were awarded territories on the island of Holyhead. Verique influence grew further under the reign of Coinneach I. He was a controversial choice as tanist due to his marriage to Teagan of Brocbach. He was a member of a cadet branch of the House of Ní Darieann, the MacIconnichs. Clerics in the déisi conspired with familial rivals of Coinneach to overthrow him. They revolted in 1082 in support of the king's uncle, Tairrdelbach, who was crowned king by the Bishop of Caldia. On the advice of the Verique, Coinneach hired Embrian mercenaries. They defeated Tairrdelbach's rebellion following the Battle of Scillimona, which saw the pretender slain. Coinneach imprisoned and executed many of those who revolted against him and appointed Cathal Crobhdearg of Spálgleann to serve as the next Bishop of Caldia. Due to papal support for the rebellion, the king also named the new bishop as his anti-pope. The Verique were granted additional lands on the isle of Mannes and their leader, the Laird of Kilrowe. was elevated to the Earldom of Holyhead. This marked a period of Verique cultural influence on the isles of Holyhead and Mannes. Overtime, the Verique nobility became culturally Ghaillish and adopted many of their customs.
Relations with the papacy continued to deteriorate during the reigns of Medb I and Fiona II. Both monarchs continued the practice of free investiture, angering the popes. The line of anti-popes also continued, with the Catholic Church in Caldia effectively operating entirely independent of Solaria. Amid the crusades, Pope Some Guy IX issued a papal bull endorsing the invasion of Caldia. The bull purported to grant the right to Ludwig IV, the emperor of the Ahnemunde Confederation and king of Blattenberg to invade and govern Caldia and to enforce papal supremacy on the semi-independent Soitrian Church in Caldia. The Crusade for Caldia was launched in 1157. Fiona II organized the defenses of the country, but faced a series of devastating defeats. In 1159, Fiona, her husband, and several of her relatives were killed in battle. Niamh IV ascended to the throne but was killed in battle in 1160. At the time of her death, most of western Caldia had been occupied by Blattenbergish forces. Niamh's uncle, Tomaisin III, was tanist and was named king after she died at the Battle of PLACE. He reorganized his armies and fortified Garrafrauns. A diplomatic mission to Wittislich (also a member of the Ahnemunde Confederation) resulted in a marriage alliance, and Caldia secured the entry of Wittislich forces into the conflict. Following a successful campaign to liberate the islands, the crusade ended in 1162 with Tomaisin as victor. He implemented reforms to raise the taxes needed in order to build major population centers that were left devastated by the fighting. His reforms included charters for the four largest settlements and the end of papal taxation. Tomaisin successfully rebuilt Spálgleann, which was left in ruin after a lengthy siege.
The reign of Tomaisin initiated a golden age later called Splendid Centralization. This continued through the reign of Morcan VI and Alastar the Great. Alastar issued a number of his own reforms, introducing the Caldia's first standard currency. Coastal cities expanded as investments were made into ports, increasing foreign trade. Alastar's reign also saw expansive patronage of the arts, inspiring numerous cultural works. His daughter Morcan succeeded him. Her ascension was disputed by her brother, Sionann, who usurped the throne and imprisoned his sister. Their mother, Natalie of Estmere, and, younger sister Princess Fiona fled Spálgleann and were welcomed to the court of the Fitzgeralds of Holyhead. Morcan VII was executed after his mother and sister refused to return to court and a civil war soon began. A number of other rebellions also began, with many nobles revolting against the heavy-handed rule of Sionann. Both Fionna and Sionann were killed during the war. A meeting of the déisi convened to pick a new monarch. Natalie was named tanist and became queen, the first foreigner to hold the title.
In 1253, a succession crisis broke out following the death of Morcan VIII who died without direct issue. At the time of her death, there was no designated tanist as the déisi had not convened since the death of the last heir. After lengthy debate, the déisi was unable to name a new tanist. Instead, it gave power to a regency council. An interregnum was soon established during which the Guardians of the Realm oversaw the succession dispute. The Earl of Holyhead, The Earl of Benbaun, and the Archbishop of Caldia, who served as the three guardians, decided that Morcan's nephew, William Bettencourt of Estmere, had the strongest claim. His status as a Verique noble influenced the decision and made him a popular candidate. He was only eleven years old and was in Estmere at the time of his selection. As such the guardians maintained their positions until William came of age in 1258. He was the first of five Bettencourt monarchs. Upon the birth of his first son, William II, the house was Ghaillisized as MacWilliam. Numerous Estmerish reforms were issued during the reign of the Bettencourts. More royal burghs were issued, taxation was made more efficient, property laws were amended to prohibit women from owning land, and same-sex relationships were prohibited. There were no anti-popes set up by the Bettencourt monarchs, breaking with a long line of anti-popes set up by the native houses which preceded them. Relations with the papacy were improved and cognatic primogeniture hereditary law was introduced. The abandonment of tanistry brought stability but angered the Ghaillish aristocracy which preferred the native system. The unexpected death of William III in 1359 left the six year old William IV on the throne. Discontent led by the MacIconnichs, who had been out of power since the arrival of William I, spread throughout much of the kingdom and a brief uprising saw Coinneach II sack and seize the throne for himself. William IV and the Bettencourts were executed by Coinneach II and the royal line of the house went extinct.
Following the first MacIconnich restoration, Caldia remained economically backward country. Despite the existence of a national currency, the Crown, barter was the means of exchange. Despite this, the nation's leading ports and cities grew significantly. Feudalism never developed in Caldia as it did in the rest of Euclea. As a result, the peasantry largely remained a class of free farmers throughout most of Caldish history. Slavery had become much rarer, as the spread of Sotirianity and the end of Ghaillish piracy ended the slave trade. In the middle of the 14th century, Caldia was struck by the Black Death. The population of Caldia, like most of Euclea, was seriously affected. The national population did not reach the same numbers that existed before 1348 until the beginning of the 19th century. Nearly one third of the population died during 1349–1351. Some viewed the plague as having been sent by God to purge the nation of the ungodly. This message was routinely advanced by priests who were aligned with Solaria and that opposed the Caldish anti-popes.
Morcan IX was named as tanist began following a tense meeting of the déisi. She became queen in 1395 and began to issue a number of reforms that aimed to bring Caldia back in line with Solaria. As a part of her attempts, she had her father's anti-pope arrested and executed for blasphemy. This allow the pope to appoint the next Bishop of Caldia, Tomás Ó Fiaich. Ó Fiaich was named Laird Chancellor by Morcan and launched an inquisition, purging the Caldish church of unorthodox clergy. The church was granted significant legal authority. Sodomy was made a crime punishable by death and known same-sex couples were arrested and tried in ecclesiastical courts. Women also lost their right to own property, which had been reinstated following the first MacIconnich restoration, and they could no longer inherit noble titles. Reforming the déisi, Morcan allowed members of the clergy aligned with Ó Fiaich to sit alongside the nobility. The queen's brother, Prince Séamus had earned significant support during the last meeting of the déisi and was almost chosen to succeed his father instead of his sister. The déisi named him as Morcan's heir soon after her ascension. Séamus had several well-known relationships with several courtiers. To eliminate him as a threat to her rule, the queen issued a warrant for his arrest. The prince was able to escape and raised an army, triggering the Siblings' War. Following a campaign that lasted just over a year, Séamus defeated his sister and her supporters. After seizing the throne, he had his sister and Ó Fiaich executed. He was excommunicated and established his own anti-pope. Morcan's reforms were reversed and serfdom was abolished.
Fiona VI and her tanist died of smallpox in 1457, triggering a succession crisis. An inclusive meeting of the déisi saw no candidate secure enough support to become tanist and in turn monarch. A regency council was formed as factions of the MacIconnich family began skirmishing with one another. Hoping to prevent a civil war, the council petitioned the Ordennyan king to serve as an arbitrator. Edvard VI chose Còiseam of the cadet Mac Cellacháin branch of the MacIconnich dynasty. Còiseam was married to Edvard's sister and was easily influenced by the Ordennyan king. His rule lasted last than a year before he named Edvard as Laird Regent and abdicated. Caldia became a de facto client state of Ordennya and Edvard ruled over Caldia as regent until his death in 1489. There was a significant revolt in 1465 that was suppressed. However, anti-Ordennyan sentiments continued to linger and many of the nobles wished for a return to native rule following the suspension of the déisi. Resistance continued and the Caldish War for Independence began in 1486. Medb II was crowned queen and led the revolt against Ordennyan rule. Edvard died in 1489 and his successor sued for peace. The Ghailles regained control of their kingdom following the Shanbally Agreement, which is considered to be the world's first documented declaration of independence. The second MacIconnich restoration began and Medb II ruled over an independent Caldia.
Early modern history
- Caldish Reformation
- Ellenian Caldia
- Colonial ventures
- Dejarlist Wars and continued religious strife
19th century and early 20th century
- Constitution and Silent Revolution
- Great War
- Mag Fhearadhaigh government and the rise of Liberty
- Reconciliation with Werania and Estmere, EC ascension
- 1960s social upheaval and political reforms
- Industrial decline and discovery of oil
The implementation of the Treaty of Vesalla established the Euclozone in 1990. The Caldish coróin was phased out and replaced by the Euro, which became the common currency for all EC member-states. The Caldish economy continued to grow during the early 1990s, the resulted of continued economic liberalization and deregulation implemented by the government. Between 1990 and 1993, the GDP grew by 3.6%. The nation's GDP per capita also increased steadily during this period, rising from $28,671 in 1989 to $34,789 by 1995. By the late 1990s, Caldia was one of the world's fasting growing economies.
Patricia Flowers was defeated in the 1992 election by Niamh Nic Uilliam of the Social Democratic Party. She continued the process of economic liberalization started by her predecessor. She also backed many of the traditional concerns of the PSD such as funding social services, education, and healthcare. Under Nic Uilliam, the Caldish education system underwent significant reform. The education system was centralized at a national level, curriculum was replaced, and the school year's calendar was changed. Pay for teachers and staff also increased and the requirements to become a teacher were raised. Nic Uilliam also brought welfare back under government control, phasing out the contractors used since the 1980s. Caldia paid off all of its foreign-held debt by 1997 and established its first sovereign wealth fund in 1993 in order to accumulate income from petroleum production. Previously, political parties and the public were sharply divided on how much petroleum revenue should be spent and how much it should save. Two additional sovereign wealth funds were established in 1995 and 1999. Despite the economic growth and budgetary stability under Nic Uilliam, traditional industries continued to decline. Labor unions affiliated with her party were impacted significantly by this decline. Some pulled their support for Nic Uilliam while some prominent members of her party defected.
In 1997, she lost her majority but continued with her Red-Green coalition government. In 2001, she was replaced as party leader by Séamus Ó Faoláin due to her unpopularity and poor performance in pools. She refused to step down as taoiseach, triggering a political crisis within the Social Democratic Party. Caldia's long-serving monarch, Ellen II died before the crisis was resolved. The new monarch Elton II was convinced by the party leadership to use his constitutional powers and dismiss Nic Uilliam, which he did in March 2002 and caused much controversy.
The Liberty Party returned to government following the 2002 election. Énna Ó Ceallaigh became taoiseach and continued policies of economic liberalization and deregulation. He also significantly reduced state spending. In 2005, the World Financial Crisis resulted in a fiscal crisis. The government was slow to react, continuing its liberal hands-off approach to the economy. A sharp decline in the nation's GDP and a collapse in the Caldish banking and financial services sectors saw Ó Ceallaigh replaced by Alexis Walker. Her government intervened in the crisis by bailing out the failing financial sectors. Under Walker, the Caldish government took a more on a more proactive role in the economy and she invested in public services. The fiscal crisis had mostly ended by 2010 and the Caldish economy recovered and continued to grow. Elton II abdicated in 2010, and was succeeded by Kenneth IV, the current monarch.
In recent decades, Caldia became a more diverse nation due to increased immigration. Change in government policy, humanitarian crises, and new EC-wide programs brought an influx of immigrants. In 2010, it was estimated that as much as 20 per cent of the population was foreign-born. This brought new social challenges to Caldia, which for much of its history was ethnically homogeneous. The popularity of the anti-immigration Free Market Party grew as a result. Immigration to Caldia continued to grow during the 2010s.
In 2016, Caldia suffered a series of terrorist attacks in Spálgleann on the same day. They were conducted by a small group of far-right extremists and targeted the government, the Gaullican embassy, and the city police force. The attacks resulted in 81 deaths and 418 injuries. The government made significant changes to its security apparatus as a result.
Walker stood-down as taoiseach in 2017 and was later elected to serve as President of the Euclean Community. She was succeeded by Jimmy O'Reilly, the nation's first non-white leader. He won the 2017 election and continued many of the policies of Walker. A diplomatic scandal known as the Pietramontecorvino Incident caused his resignation in May 2018. Frank Casarnach became taoiseach and implemented spending cuts and scaled back government intervention in the economy. He was dismissed by the king in January 2019 following a corruption scandal. In the 2019 election, the Social Democratic Party won and Stiofán Mac Suibhne became taoieach. His party won over 48% of the electorate's votes.
Caldia occupies the entirely of the Caldish Isles, an archipelago located off of the northeast coast of Euclea. It is bounded to the east by the Vehemens Ocean, the southwest by the Northern Sea, the northeast by the Ghaillish Sea, and to the northwest by the Boreal Sea. The country shares a maritime border with Ordennya, Werania, and Feghrenland.
At 326.93 km2 (126.23 sq mi), Caldia is one of the smaller countries in Euclea. It is the amongt the northernmost points in Euclea and is one of the coldest. Caldia's highest point is Mór Ealadha, at 2,111 m (6,926 ft) while the lowest point is Gleann Naofa in Adhmadfiáin, County Holyhead, the lowest point of which is 5 metres (16 feet) below sea level.
Southern Caldia, which is home to the largest portion of both the country's population and agricultural land, is broadly comprised by temperate grassland and mixed forest, while further north boreal forest predominates. In Sudreadharr, the Highlands, and the northern portions of the Lowlands, there is a large Taiga biome and that features concentrated populations of Caldish pine. Mountain ranges are also common throughout the Highlands. The Caldish landscape is marked by the effects of former ice age glaciation, which formed lakes and the characteristic jagged, rocky northern coastline, marked by hundreds of small islands.
Due to its location, Caldia's climate varies based on geographical regions, the Highlands and the Lowlands. The Lowlands has a temperate climate. Along the southern coastline, the country is fully exposed to storm fronts form the Vehemens. This results in more precipitation and milder winters when compared to the country's northern coastline. In the northern Highlands, the coastal mountains are in a rain shadow. This means that there are lower rain and snow totals than in the south.
There are four distinguishable seasons. Summers are warmest and sunniest in the lowland areas near Spálgleann and are coldest in the Highlands. Compared to other places with a similar latitude, the Caldish Lowlands are warmer and drier due to the Vehemens Gulf Stream. This warms the country's east coast in addition to its south, providing warmer weather for Caithia and Oileáin Oirthir. Temperature in the west of Caldia is notably cooler than the east. During the summers, the maxima average is 18 °C (64 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded in Caldia was 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) at Pennsea, County Holyhead, in 2006. Despite the warm and sunny summers in the Lowlands, the region sees snow and cold weather during the winter. The temperature ranges from freezing point and below, with temperatures as low as −15 °C (5 °F) recorded in the northwest.
As a result of its high latitude, Caldia has experiences notably different sunlight when compared to other parts of Euclea. From late May to the end of July, the sun never completely sets in areas to the north of the Avanaric Circle. Due to Caldia's proximity to the Avanar, parts of the country experience up to 20 hours of sunlight a day. From late November to the end of January, the converse occurs. The sun never rises above the horizon to the north. As a result, daylight hours are brief throughout the country.
The Caldish Lowlands are the wettest part of the country, concentrated in the east. The annual rainfall in some parts of the east exceed 3,000 mm (120 inches). Elsewhere in Caldia, rainfall varies. Some parties of the country receive as little as 300 millimetres (12 inches) each year. Heavy snowfall is common throughout the Highlands, but is less frequent in the Lowlands. Many coastal areas in the Lowlands have an average of fewer than 12 days of snowfall annually.
Wildlife found in Caldia is representative of what is typically found elsewhere in the north-east of Euclea. One notable example is the Euclean wildcat, several thousand of which live throughout Caldia. Several larger mammals found in other parts of the continent have been hunted to the point of extinction. The wolf is one such example, and a population has only returned due to human intervention. Additional human activity has led to the introduction of different species of wildlife. In total, Caldia's environment supports over 60 different types of wild mammals.
One of the largest combined populations in Caldia is that of grey and habour seals. Thousands of seals live along the country's coastline, making up one of the largest concentrated populations in the world. In mountainous areas, the country hosts significant populations of Avanaric fox, mountain hares. lemmings, and stoat. Red squirrel. heather cock, Caldish wildcat, and elk are found throughout the country. A number of native domesticated breeds are native to Caldia, such as the East Highland Terrier and the Caithian pony. There are varying types of birds found in Caldia, of which the Highland crossbill is the only endemic bird. It is thought that there are over 15,000 species of insects in Caldia, with the potential to discover thousands more.
The waters of Caldia have a diverse environment. The largest of which is the sperm whale. In total, over a dozen species of whale are found in Caldish waters. There is also a significant population of dolphins and porpoise. The country has a rich population of fish, with 40 fresh-water species and over 150 marine species. There are also over a thousand species of fresh-water invertebrates and an estimated 3,500 different species of marine invertebrates.
Caldish flora is varied, incorporating both deciduous and coniferous forest species in addition to those found in moorland and tundra biomes. In total, it is estimated that country's total number of species include over 20,000 species of algae, 6500 species of fungi, 1600 species of lichen, 1000 species of moss, and 2,650 species of vascular plants. The most popular plant in Caldia is thistle, which is a national symbol of the country dating back centuries.
Caldia is home to a diverse range of scenery and landscapes. The Caldish Highlands is considered to be home to the most attractive landscapes in the country. It is characterized by mountains and sea-lochs which define Caldia's northern coasts. The country's northern coastline presents some of the most impressive coastal scenes in Euclea, drawing thousands of tourists annually. As a result of its high latitude, the country experiences the natural phenomena of the Aurora borealis (known in Ghallish as the spéir ag lonradh or shining skies) and the Midnight sun (visible during the summer months).
Caldia performs well in world environmental indexes, ranking among the top nations. These indexes are based on the risks the environment pose to human health, the loss in natural habitats and ecosystems, and changes in CO2 emissions. The nation tends to perform well as a result being sparsely populated and policies aimed at curbing carbon emissions. In the University of Warminster's 2017 index, Caldia ranked 17th in the world and fourth in Euclea. However, Warminister's index did not take Caldish whaling practices or oil exports into consideration. it did note over-fishing.
Despite its comparably large size, Caldia is a highly urbanized country. Much of the nation's surface area of 222,029 square kilometres is sparsely populated or uninhabited. As a result, Caldia has a large number of cities. Much of the population is concentrated in population centers along its southern coast, spanning from Shanbally to County Folcthagh. The largest conurbation is the Southern Caldia region, which includes Spálgleann (the national capital), Shanbally, Clyte, Shercock, Fedamore, Corofin, Pennsea, and a number of smaller cities.
Caldia is considered to be one of the most developed democracies and states of justice in the world. From 1812, c. 45% of men and women (25 years and older) had the right to vote, whereas it was far lower in most democracies for the time. Likewise, Caldia was the first nation to allow women the right to vote and was the first to allow women to vote at the same time as men. Since 2010, Caldia has been classified as the world's most democratic country by the Democracy Index.
According to the Constitution of Caldia, which was adopted on 17 May 1814, Caldia is a unitary constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, wherein the King of Caldia is the head of state and the Taoiseach is the head of government. As defined by the Constitution, the country's supreme legal document, power is divided among the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government.
The Monarch officially retains executive power. The introduction a parliamentary system of government has resulted in the reduction of the monarch's duties. As such, many of the monarch's remaining duties is strictly representative and ceremonial such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Taoiseach and other ministers in the executive government. The monarch still retains some significant powers, such as the power to dismiss a taoiseach, but this is rarely invoked. Accordingly, the monarch is commander-in-chief of the Caldish Armed Forces, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity. Kenneth IV of the House of MacIconnich-Sartoux was crowned King of Caldia in 2010. Princess Mary Victoria, is the heir apparent to the throne and the Kingdom. A modified system of tainistry is in place, allowing the monarch to appoint their own heir.
In practice, the Taoiseach exercises the executive powers. Constitutionally, legislative power is vested with both the government and the Tionól, but the latter is the supreme legislature and a biicameral body. The Tionól is the bicameral national parliament composed of the two Chambers of the Tionól: Seanad Glítteann (Senate) and Comhthionól Náisiúnta (National Assembly). The Seanad is composed of sixty members, with fifteen nominated by the Taoiseach, representatives for the significant religious denominations (Lairds Spiritual), the presidents of the four ancient and two Roryian universities (Lairds Academia), three senators appointed by the Chamber of Commerce (Lairds Commercial), two agricultural experts (Lairds Agricultural), and twenty five elected members - each elected by one of Caldia's twenty five counties. The Comhthionól has 399 members (Teachtaí Comhthionól) elected to represent multi-seat constituencies under the system of proportional representation and by means of the single transferable vote. The two houses meet in Carrowdun Palace located in the capital of Spálgleann.
Teachtaí Comhthionól (TCs) and elected seanadóirí serve for five year terms until elections are held once again. The last Seanad election was on 26 May 2016 and the last Comhthionól was on 18 February 2019. The appointed seanadóirí do not stand for reelection and serve their term either for life or until they are dismissed by the taoiseach or the other respective nominating bodies.
The Comhthionól ratifies national treaties developed by the executive branch. Members of government can be impeached if their acts are declared unconstitutional. If an indicted suspect is impeached, the Comhthionól has the power to remove the person from office.
The position of taoiseach Caldia's head of government, is allocated to the Teachta Comhthionól who can obtain the confidence of a majority in the Comhthionól, usually the current leader of the largest political party or the leaders of a coalition of parties. In recent decades, it has become less frequent for a single party to have the sufficient political power in terms of the number of seats to form a government on its own. Currently the Social Democrats are the nation's largest political party and form the current government, which took place following the February 2019 snap election.
The taoiseach nominates the cabinet, traditionally drawn from members of the same political party or parties in the Comhthionól, making up the government. The taoiseach organizes the executive government and exercises its power as vested by the Constitution. The Cabinet is constitutionally limited to seventeen voting members. No more than two members can be selected from the Seanad, and the taoiseach, tánaiste (deputy prime minister), and Minister of Finance must be members of the Comhthionól.
Through the Council of State, a privy council presided over by the monarch, the taoiseach and the cabinet meet at Spálgleann Palace and formally consult the monarch. All government bills need the formal approval by the monarch before and after introduction to the Tionól. All of the monarch's actions as head of state are reviewed and approved by the the council. The privy council is an example of the symbolic powers retained by the king, as all government are parliamentary acts are decided before meetings of the council.
Political parties and elections
Traditionally, the Liberty Party has played a leading role in Caldish politics since its creation in 1936. Since 1937, most governments have been formed by a taoiseach from Liberty. The party has had nine Taoiseachs who collectively held the post for a total of 54 years. They have sparred mainly with the Social Democrats, who have formed several governments and most recently won the February 2019 snap election.
For over 50 years, Caldia had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Comhthionól—the Liberty Party, the Social Democrats, the Centre Party, the Caldish Democrats, and the Labour Party (previously the Left Party)—before the Greens became the sixth party in the 1992 election. The Free Market Party entered the Comhthionól in 2002, becoming the seventh party, and a splinter into PNG added the eighth party in 2005. Further infighting within the Free Market Party saw several of its members expelled, who went on to form the ninth party - the Nationals. The Pensioners' Party sent its first TC following the 2017 election becoming the tenth party. The eleventh party, the Caithian separatist Homeland, entered the chamber after the 2019 snap election.
Regular elections are held on a rotating five year schedule. The five-tiered system, known commonly as the cúig vótaí (five votes) system, starts with elections to the health boards in the first year, municipal elections in the second, county elections in the third, Seanad elections in the fourth, and Comhthionól elections in the fifth. Elections to the Euclean Parliament are held every four years, with the last election having taken place in 2019
In the 2007 general election, the Liberty Party lost its majority. As a result, party leader Alexis Walker approached Malcolm Fitzpatrick of the Centre Party to form a majority coalition government. Together the coalition had 203 seats, surpassing the 200-seat majority by three seats. The Liberty Party had 176 seats and the Centre Party had 27 seats. Following the election, Social Democrats formed the formal opposition with a total of 124 seats. New SDs leader Mícheál Ó Domhnaill was installed as Leader of His Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition. Results for the Free Market Party were considered monumental as the party gained 15 seats, giving them a total of 17. The outcome of the 2012 general election resulted in the loss of the Liberty-Centre Coalition's majority, with Liberty losing eleven seats and Centre losing two. The Social Democrats gained five seats but preformed poorer than expected. With 129 seats, the new SDs leader Darragh Ballíck became Opposition Leader. The loss in seats for the government and the SDs was the direct result of the surge in seats for the FMP, which picked up 27 new seats - bringing them to a total of 44. Taoiseach Walker declined to enter a coalition with the FMP, but instead signed a supply agreement with the FMP and the Caldish Dems for budgetary matters.
Following the 2017 general election, Liberty expanded its coalition to include the Caldish Dems and secured a majority government under Jimmy O'Reilly. The Social Democrats faced their fourth consecutive defeat in a general election as the party lose support to smaller parties that targeted its traditional base. The decision of Ballíck to secure an electoral alliance with the Greens isolated many in working-class, union voters who turned to Labour. Following the election, Stiofán Mac Suibhne became opposition leader. The election also saw the collapse of the FMP, which lost support to its rivals the PNG and the Nationals.
A snap election was called by Taoiseach Humphrey Dumfries following a corruption scandal that forced the king to intervene and sack Frank Casarnach as taoiseach following his refusal to resign or call a snap election after the collapse of his coalition. Liberty faced its worst ever defeat and the Social Democrats managed to secure an outright majority. The Nationals also gained nearly two dozen seats. Many of the smaller parties bled seats, with the FMP and PNG both losing all of their remaining seats. Mac Suibhne formed the first social democratic government since the 1997 election. Liberty chose Pádraig Mac Piarais to lead the party and he became opposition leader.
Election turnout in Caldia has always been high by international comparison. The 2012 election saw a turnout of 80.11%, which was down from 84.63% in 2007. The 2016 Seanad election had a turnout of 73.07%, which is considered average. Caldish politicians tend to enjoy a high degree of confidence from the citizens. However, this trend was broken by Taoiseach Enda Kenny and the Recession of 2005. In recent years, Taoiseach Walker has experienced high levels of confidence, with 72% of survey respondents say they were confident in her leadership. The tumultuous leadership of taoiseachs Jimmy O'Reilly and Frank Casarnach saw a further decline in public confidence, hitting a period of successive historical lows.
The Kingdom of Glytter is a consists of 25 counties. The counties have a permanent constitutional status. Under the Glytteronian Constitution, all 25 counties are equal in status. Each county is governed as a county municipality, with the exception of Spálgleann, Gayneva, Invertwinc and Snarksburgh, all of which are both a municipality and a county municipality. The national government, formally the Monarch, is represented in each county by a county governor (Gaylic: Contae Gobharnóir). This office mainly functions as a supervising authority over the county and municipality administrations and their decisions can be appealed to him or her.
Foreign relations and international institutions
Throughout the 20th century, Glytteronian foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. Glytter's government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war.
Glytter's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the xxx who cares. During the Great War Glytter maintained its policy of neutrality. However, it was violated following the Estmerish invasion of the nation. While the Ua Buachalla government secretly collaborated with the Estmerish and refused to put up resistance for fear of war, the government was less enthusiastic about the transfer of the occupation to the Federation of Asteria.
Many within the country resisted the new occupiers, resulting in violence and a quasi-civil war. The Federation pressured the Glytteronian government to let them lease the Caipitilbonn naval base in Spálgleann to the Federal Navy. The base was attacked by Gaullican forces during the Battle of Glytter and following the attack Glytter was largely forced by the Federation to collaborate with the Democratic Alliance. Tensions only continued until the end of the war and the occupation. Glytteronian foreign policy is very reluctant to trust the Federation as a result of the occupation and the incidents it caused within the country.
During the early Phoney War era, Glytter combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence. The function of the Glytteronian military was to deter attack. At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal connections with the DITO aligned states. However, the government often condemned both DITO and CSS for escalating conflicts and proxy wars. While Kaxakh refused to recognize Glytter as a state, informal ties were maintained through the Gaullicans and the nation maintained an annex within the Gaullican embassy to Kaxakh until the December Crisis. Following the collapse of the Communist Party, the new government recogonised Glytter and formal diplomatic ties were established.
Glytter was a founding member of both the Community of Nations and the Euclean Community and plays an active role within it. The Glytteronian military often contributes to CN peacekeeping missions and the country is noted for using its oil profits to bail out many of the failing Euclean states during the Great Recession in a bid to save the Euclozone. Glytter maintains close ties to Gaullica and the Estmerish League as a result of recent and historical friendships in each respective case. It is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Council and a member of the League of Oil Producing States. Glytter is a fierce opponent of nuclear armament and is a member of the Treaty of St. Ragnarstad. Spálgleann and Gayneva are home to dozens of international institutions and are both centres of international diplomacy. The country often tries to mediate conflicts between nations and peace talks are often hosted in Glytteronian cities. It is also known for its policy towards subsidising renewable and nuclear energy in developing countries. Glytter is also a member of the BIG Group, joining the other Non-Aligned states of the Senouillac Union and Heja. The group promotes economic cooperation between the three member states and provides Senouillac and Valentiri companies access to the Euclean single market through multi-national corporations.
Academics consider the Walker Doctrine to be the cornerstone of Glytter's twenty first century foreign policy. The doctrine began during Alexis Walker's tenure as Minister of Foreign Affairs. It's goal is to include women and members of the LGBT+ community in government affairs in countries where they are historically and/or currently excluded. It also ties the use of foreign aid money to a nation's human rights record.
Judiciary and law enforcement
In Caldia, a civil law system is used where laws are drafted and amended in the legislature. The system is regulated by the nation's court system. There are four tiers to the court system, known as the Ceithre Chúirt (Four Courts). The High Court, the national courts, county Courts, and municipal courts. The judiciary is independent from the executive and legislative branches and has high levels of judicial independence. The national government reserves the right to nominate judges for all four tiers. These are then confirmed by the lower-house of the legislature, the Comhthionól Náisiúnta.
The High Court serves as the nation's supreme court. It has 11 permanent members who are nominated by the executive and confirmed by the legislature. It is led by the Chief Justice who is elected from among its members for a permanent term. Its mission is to interpret the constitution, determine the constitutionality of legislation, and regulate the national judiciary. Decisions of all lower courts can be appealed to the High Court, who has the power to overturn their rulings. Through its judicial reviews, it has significant authority over both the government and the legislature. It monitors both branches to ensure they compliant with both the constitution and provisions of existing legislation. The High Court meets at the Fitzwallace House in Spálgleann. The current Chief Justice is Bríanna Ni Flaithbheartaigh who has held the post since 2011.
National courts are courts that have jurisdiction over the nation. There are six national court districts in which counties are grouped. The authority of national courts supersedes that of both county and municipal courts. Each court consists of five members nominated and appointed by the national government. The rulings of county and municipal courts can be appealed to national courts, who have the jurisdiction to overturn or place a stay on rulings from lower courts. County Courts operate at a county level. They play a similar role to the High Court as they ensure county governments are compliant with the law. Municipal courts handle the legal affairs of municipality. Their size ranges significantly with larger cities employing over two dozen judges while the smallest municipalities have only one judge. Metropolitan counties in Caldia have county courts that include the functions of municipal courts.
There is also an unofficial fifth tier of the judiciary made up of the Court of Familiar Arbitration. This was established in the fourteenth century and is specifically for the nation's clans. It was previously used as a way to solve land disputes between clans to prevent armed conflict. Today, it only has legal jurisdiction over familiar tartan and arms.
The law in Caldia is enforced by the Caldish Royal Police Service. Formed in 2017, it is made up of 47 police districts and several specialist agencies. Each district is led by a commissioner while the entire service is overseen by the Royal Police Board, headed by the Royal Police Commissioner. The Royal Police Board reports directly to the Ministry of Justice and Equality. Prior to 2017, police services were handled on a municipal and county level. Municipalities maintained their own services, operated joint-services, or had services provided by the county police agencies. Caldia is a member of Euclean Law Enforcement Cooperation Organization (ELECO) and Global Information, Security, and Police Organization (Glopol). The country maintains extradition treaties with most nations, but frequently declines to extradite those seeking political asylum. This often results in tensions with other governments, who have at times suspended agreements with the Caldish government.
The judicial and law enforcement systems are generally considered to be transparent, accountable, and to have low-levels of corruption. The system is operated under the pretext of innocence until proven guilty. Prisons are widely viewed as humane.
The Caldish Defense Forces are made up of the Caldish Army, the Royal Caldish Navy, which includes the Coast Guard, the Royal Caldish Air Force, and the Home Guard. Compared to most Eastern armies, it is small but well equipped. Currently there are almost 25,000 full-time active personnel and over 45,000 in reserve. The head of the armed forces is the Chief of Staff (Ceann Foirne - CF), the most senior commissioned officer in the country. The monarch is the pro forma Commander-in-Chief, but in reality it was clearly understood since the onset of the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader. However, there is a trend among monarchs, as well as other members of the Royal Family, to serve in the Armed Forces.
Caldia is a neutral country and rules governing the participation of Caldish troops in conflict zones must pass the "triple-lock"- system, obtaining the approval of the Comhthionól Náisiúnta, the Governmant, and the monarch. Caldia has its own domestic arms industry which helps supply the Armed Forces through corporations such as SAGG and the Waddy Arms Company.
Since the mid 20th century, Caldia's military has actively participated in a host of peacekeeping operations. Among the most prominent of its peacekeeping operations was its intervention in the Cornais Civil War with Gaullica. Caldia has also contributed to or led peacekeeping operations elsewhere in Couis and the Asterias. The Armed Forces have also fought insurgencies at home. The Thistle Insurrection and Na Trioblóidí saw heavy involvement from the Army, aiding domestic and Estmerish police forces.
Until the end of the Phoney War, nearly all males and females reaching the age of military service were conscripted for at least a year of service. As of 1996 conscription was abolished. As a result, all soldiers serving must by law be volunteers, unless otherwise required for defence readiness. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service. Many Caldish volunteer to serve in the Home Guard, the national reservist force. Members of the Home Guard are paid on a monthly basis for their service and are required to attend training on the the third weekend of every month.
The Riarachán Eolais Glítteann (REG - Caldish Information Administration) is responsible for supplying the Armed Forces, the Ministry of Defence and the Government with intelligence regarding foreign matters. The Seirbhís Faisnéise Baile (SFB - Domestic Intelligence Service) is tasked with supplying the same groups with domestic intelligence. They both operate under the Ministry of National Security.
Genetic research suggests that the earliest settlers migrated from Sveltlana following the most recent ice age. After the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age, migrants introduced a Tenic language and culture. Migrants from the two latter eras still represent the genetic heritage of most Glytteronians. Gaylic tradition expanded and became the dominant form over time. As of the 2011 census, roughly 84% of the population are of ethnic Gayls. Under Glytteronian law the government is prohibited from recording the specific ethnic group of all non-Gaylic citizens. As a result, only unofficial estimations of specific ethnic groups exist based on factors such as visa applications.
At the time of 2013 census, the number of non-Gaylic residents was estimated at 1,277,490, comprising close to 20% of the total population of 9,257,180. The two largest non-white cohorts were Bahian (509,145) and Badawiyan (203,657). Other white groups, such as Gaullicans and Estmerish, were recorded at 592,460. In 2013, the Glytteronian government said that 16% of the Glytteronian population were immigrants or children of two immigrant parents. About 6% of the immigrant population come from EC and Euclean states, Asteria Superior and Sublustria, and about 8.1% come from Coius and Romance Asteria.
Largest cities or towns in Glytter
Ionad Ríoga do Déimeagrafaíochta, 2011 census
The official language is Gaylic, which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants as their first language. However, due to the heavy presence of Estmerish speakers within the country the Estmerish language is commonly treated as an official language. Gaylic is strongest in the Highlands and Oileáin Oirthir while Esmerish is strong in the southern regions of Glytter.
Glytter has a tradition of learning foreign languages, formalised in Glytteronian education laws. Nearly 90% of the total population indicate they are able to converse in Estmerish, 52% in Gaullican, and 29% in Sveltlanan. Estmerish is a mandatory course in all secondary and tertiary schools. In most secondary school educations, one additional modern foreign language is mandatory during the final two years.
In tertiary schools, two additional modern foreign languages are mandatory during the first three years. Only during the last two years in pre-university tertiary education one foreign language is mandatory. Besides Estmerish, the standard modern languages are Gaullican, Sveltlanan, and Weranic, although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Lusitan, Badawiyan, or Kaxakh.
As a result of immigration, languages such as Zunu and Wazovian have a growing presence within the nation. However, most immigrants have learned to speak either Gaylic or Estmerish after settling in the country.
Forms of Sotirianity have dominated religious life in the Caldish Isles for around 1400 years. Although a majority of citizens still identify with Sotirianity in many surveys, regular church attendance has fallen dramatically since the middle of the 20th century, while immigration and demographic change have contributed to the growth of other faiths, most notably Salam. This has led some commentators to variously describe Glytter as a multi-faith, secularised, or post-Sotirian society.
In the 2013 census, 76% of all respondents indicated that they were Sotirians with the next largest faiths being Salam (3.5%), Neo-paganism (1.4%), Hyndism (.9%), Atudaism (.8%), Buddhism (.4%), and all other religions (.2%). 16.8% of people identified themselves as having no religion, identifying as agnostic or atheist. Recent surveys and reports from various churches indicate that 1 in 10 Glytteronians regularly attend religious services.
Among Sotirians, adherents to the Church of Glytter make up 57.2% of the population, while Solarian Catholics and Other Protestants make up 13.3% and 5.5% of the population respectively. According to Church reporters, it has 6,357,508 baptised members and 1,467 congregations. The Church of Glytter remains the sate religion due to the role the Monarch plays as the Supreme Governor. However, Church influence is virtually non-existent and Glytter is regarded by many academics as a secular nation. The Church of Glytter is a Protestant faith with an Episcopal polity. The faith is more commonly known as Goeldonism and was established by Queen Ellen I during the Reformation. Its primate is the Archbishop of Spálgleann, currently Conall Haines. The Church has allowed women to serve as priests and bishops since its establishment and was the first church to do so. Likewise, it has also recogonised and preformed same-sex marriages since it was established. Previously, only prominent figures from the Church of Glytter were granted representation in the Seanad Glítteann as Lairds Spiritual. However, reforms in the late 20th century granted seats to the other leading faiths in the country.
Sotirianity first arrived in the eighth century. Tradition maintains that Saint Adomnán was the most prominent missionary, eventually converting the nobility and the royal family. The religion often clashed with the native polytheistic faiths, which were very tolerant of both women and homosexuals. As a result tension between the two factions was common until the Sotirian Church in Glytter broke with that in Solaris through a series of anti-popes and uprisings. The Protestant Reformation saw the marginalisation of Solarian Catholics, who would lead a series of uprisings during and after the Iohnibte Wars in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As a result, many of the Catholics living in the Highlands were forcibly relocated to a mix of Glytteronian and Estmerish colonies. Relations between the two faiths normalized during the end of the eighteenth century and the situation has greatly improved since, with Solarian Catholics holding prominent roles in governance and other aspects of society.
Healthcare in Glytter is similar in quality to other developed nations. Glytter ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality. Average life expectancy in Glytter is 83.4 years, making it the second highest in the world. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option. By law, every citizen is required to be registered with a practicing clinical physician, something typically arranged by their healthcare provider.
Unlike many developed nations, both public and private healthcare providers in Glytter cover the costs of products such as birth control, condoms, and tampons. While some clients may be required to make co-pays, the practice is credited with Glytter's low unintended pregnancy and STI rates. Healthcare providers also cover the costs of abortions and STI screenings. After the AIDs crisis, the Glytteronian government began to finance AIDs research. Several prominent AIDs and HIV research laboratories are headquartered in the Glytteronian capital.
The Glytteronian government provides healthcare to every citizen through the Roghapoiblí (public option). Every citizen is covered by the Roghapoiblí by default. However, private healthcare options are available and those who purchase private healthcare opt out of the Roghapoiblí system. For those on the Roghapoiblí, an additional 5% is added to their income tax. Since Glytter has a flat tax, those with healthcare coverage through the Roghapoiblí system pay an income tax of 15%. Those just above or below the poverty line are exempt from income tax and would instead just pay a 5% tax for coverage. For those unable to pay, as part of the welfare state they are covered under the Roghapoiblí while they receive welfare payments. Some patients covered by the Roghapoiblí may have to pay nominal fees.
Hospitals and other medical centres are administered by county health boards. County health boards are part of the Ministry of Health and consist of up to 15 members. Eight of these members are elected by the public every three years while a minimum of three are appointed by the Minister of Health. These appointments are largely to balance the board's expertise as deemed necessary by the government. Voting for public-elected board members occurs through the single transferable vote system, and elections take place at start of the five-year schedule for regularly-held elections. CHB elections have the lowest voter turnout.
The county health boards are given a set of objectives by the Ministry of Health, but have a degree of autonomy in how they choose to achieve these. CHBS are non-profit providers. The performance of individual CHBs is monitored by the CHB Funding and Performance Bureau, which is also part of the Ministry of Health. CHBs are responsible for providing funding to primary health organisations (PHOs). There are two parties from which board members are typically chosen: the Alliance for Public Health and the National Health League. The APH tends to support higher spending and the allocation of more resources to the primary health organisations. It is politically aligned with the Social Democrats, which does not stand in CHB elections. The NHL tends to support less spending and privitisation. It maintains loose political ties to the Liberty Party and other centre-right political parties. Parties that contest CHB elections and hold seats on various boards include: the Centre Party, the FMP, the Greens, the Leftist Liberals, and the Pensioners' Party. The electoral system is considered controversial as some healthcare experts and advocates are concerned about the politicisation of the county health boards while others have concerns over the level of political party influence.
Schooling in Caldia is mandatory for all children between age 5 and 17. The compulsory Caldish education system follows a three-tiered model that includes primary (bunscoile), secondary (meánscoile), and tertiary (treascoile) education. Typically, primary education lasts from ages 3-7, secondary from ages 8-12, and tertiary from ages 13-17. After completing ísleoideachas (lower education), a student moves on to completely his or her ardoideachas (higher education). Depending on the path chosen, students can either attend a trade school or university after completing Grade 13. Higher education typically starts at the age of 18. While it is not mandatory, the government strongly encourages students to pursue ardoideachas. Small tuition fees were once charged for trade schools, universities, as well as pre-schools, but were abolished in 2018. The Caldish education system is globally renown for the quality of its instruction, its small teacher-to-student ratio, and its progressivism. Students receive instruction on subjects such as women's issues, LGBT issues, reproductive health, and multiculturalism from a young age. However, this is not without criticism. In recent years opposition to the liberal instruction has grown.
The school year begins on the third Monday of January and ends on 30 November. Should 30 November fall on a Saturday or Sunday, the school year ends on the last weekday of November. There is a school holiday for the entire month of June, as well as other school holidays throughout the academic year. The school year is divided into semesters, with the First Semester taking place from January to May and the Second Semester from July to November.
All schools, in both ísleoideachas and ardoideachas, are operated by the state and are part of the Ministry of Education. The annual education budget is over €23.2 billion, with €2500 being spent per capita. Schools are run through the joint efforts of municipalities and the national government. Private schools are prohibited and homeschooling is allowed but is closely supervised by the government and seldom allowed.
There are a number of prominent universities in Caldia. There are four Ancient Universities: the University of Spálgleann, the University of Garrafrauns, the University of Invertwinc, and St Cuchulain's University all of which have been open since the fourteenth-century. There are two other major universities, the Roryian universities: King's University Scariff and Shanbally University.
Caldia is among the richest countries in the world in terms of GDP (gross domestic product) per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens. It is the second-wealthiest country by GDP per capita in Euclea and has the fourth-highest GDP per capita in the world. Caldia ranks among the wealthiest countries in monetary value, with the one of the largest capital reserves per capita of any nation. Caldia is an open economy, ranking highly for "high-value" foreign direct investment flows. Comparatively, Caldia is a small globalized economy and the wealth of foreign owned companies flows out of Caldia. Foreign multinational companies are a driver of the Caldish economy, employing a significant portion of the private sector workforce and paying the majority of business taxes. International companies from inside the Euclean Community and from countries such as Lorcania, Nuxica, Senria, and Xiaodong operate major offices in Caldia. Despite the strong presence of foreign wealth, the country's high GDP per capita is bolstered by a strong resource market. Attempts to achieve diversification of the economy has led to concerns of industrial blight regarding finance and oil industries.
Caldia adopted the euclo in 2000 alongside the rest of the Euclean Community. Previously, it used the Caldish crown (coróin). Spálgleann is the country's main financial center and one of the largest in northern Euclea. It is home to the Spálgleann Stock Exchange, where many Caldish companies are listed and traded. The Caldish central bank is known as His Majesty's Treasury, which has a prominent role in the economy.
For many industries, Caldia is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, oil, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade. Caldia's engineering sector accounts for nearly half of output and exports, while telecommunications, the automotive industry, and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. It is also among the leading arms exporters in the world. Agriculture is a significant sector of the economy, accounting for 5% of GDP and and employment. Imports of foreign material goods are common. Caldia has a trade deficit with major export-economies such as the UZIR, Senria, and Xiaodong.
Interest in fashion is strong in Caldia, which is home to famous brands such as Fir & Mná (meaning Men & Women, operating as F&M). It began in the years following the Great War, with Ellen II and her sisters serving as prominent symbols of fashion. Before its own domestic industry emerged, fashion trends and styles were largely imported from Gaullica. Caldish fashion companies sell to buyers who import clothing from throughout Euclea and the Asterias. Several domestic companies are vendors themselves.
Traditionally, the egalitarian values of Caldish society have kept wage differences between the lowest paid worker and company executives lower than other developed economies. However, neoliberal economic reform beginning in the 1980s has resulted in a widening gap between the lowest paid workers and the highest paid workers. Many industrial workers have had their jobs outsourced to cheaper labor markets or have seen their sector downsized significantly. Post-industrialism has led to urban decline in former industrial centers like Spálgleann and Shanbally. However, in recent years Spálgleann has seen a process of revitalization.
An estimated 6.5 million Caldish residents are employed and around a third of the workforce completed tertiary education. The structure of the economy favors a large, knowledge-intensive export-oriented manufacturing sector and a large business service sector with an international focus. There is a strong trade union culture in Caldia, though industrial decline and political reforms have seen their influence decrease. Changes made to the unemployment system in the wake of the 2005 Global Financial Crisis considerably raised fees to unemployment funds, followed by a substantial decline in union density and density of unemployment funds occurred.
The unemployment rate was 5.5% in May 2018 while the employment rate is 69.1%. The workforce consists of 6,495,300 people while 517,000 are unemployed. In recent years, Caldia faces a growing domestic labor shortage and has an aging population.
Caldia's economy was transformed in the 1980s by the creation of a 10% low-tax "special economic zone", known in Caldia as the Global Financial Services Area (RSAD). The policy was implemented in 1985 by Taoiseach Patricia Flowers. Initially, only the cities of Spálgleann and Garrafrauns were designated as RSAD zones. Following their success, the Flowers government expanded the program in 1991 so that the entire country was effectively turned into an RSAD when the Caldish corporation tax was reduced from 34% to 12.5%. It accelerated the country's growth from a predominately agricultural and manufacturing economy into a knowledge economy. Changes in the corporate tax system attracted multinationals from high-tech, life sciences, and financial services.
Flowers also abolished the progressive income tax and implemented a flat tax rate of 10% for those above the poverty line. In 2019, the policy was abolished an a two-tiered system was introduced by the current government.
Changes in the country's tax system helped fuel significant economic growth, building on the wealth the country gained from its oil industry. It resulted in a shift away from the agricultural and industrial sectors and under Niamh Nic Uilliam education policy was amended to reflect the demand for a highly-educated workforce that had resulted from the tax policy.
Dividends earned from Caldia's sovereign wealth fund help the government supplement its low corporate and income taxes. Funds from the SWF are often used to ensure the national budget is balanced. During the Global Financial Crisis of 2005, the Caldish financial services and banking sectors faced collapsed. They were controversially bailed out by Alexis Walker's government, using money from the country's SWF.
The successful low-tax model has opened the country to accusations that it is a corporate tax haven. It is particularly an issue within the Euclean Community. Some Euclean companies have relocated to pay less in corporate taxes while the Euclean Commission has concerns many foreign corporations are being awarded tax benefits that are not in line with EC policy.
Science and technology
Research and development has its origins in the late 19th century, following the onset of the Industrial Revolution in Caldia. The country's major universities became heavily involved in global scientific studies, making significant contributions to the fields of astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, and medicine. There are dozens of internationalists Caldish scientists. Following the outbreak of the AIDs crisis, Caldish research made significant advances with government support.
Starting in the 20th century, Caldish academics have also made many notable contributions to the social sciences. Sociology and peace and conflict studies have been pioneered by academics in Caldia. There are also a number of prominent economists, many of which are part of the Caldish School of economics. Deirdre Nic Innes is considered to be the founder of the modern school and was closely involved in Caldish economy policy of the 1980s and 1990s.
Caldia is a high-tech economy with a number of developed industry. Caldia's engineering industry is a major source of inventions for Caldia and the Euclean Community. In recent years, the decline of the traditional manufacturing sector has seen the rise of Caldish tech companies. The country has a small but robust gaming sector and is home to prominent gaming companies such as Tírnaill and Donald-Douglas.
The public and the private sector in Caldia together allocate over 2.5% of GDP to research & development (R&D) per year Caldia's investment in R&D as a percentage of GDP is among the highest in the world. After the Great War, the Caldish government has prioritized scientific and R&D activities. The Ministry of Education is responsible for overseeing R&D in Caldia. Cuts to government spending has seen government support for R&D decline, while private contributions have grown.
There are a number of significant mineral resources found in Caldia. Many are found in and extracted from the country's mountainous Highlands. The Sudreadharr region is rich in iron and nickle, which are extracted and transported by rail to the nation's leading ports for export. Other valuable resources include limestone, nepheline syenite, and titanium.
Caldia is also a minor exporter of liquefied natural gas, extracting, refining, and exporting natural gas found in its exclusive economic zone.
Export revenues from oil and gas have risen to almost half of Caldia's total exports and accounts for more than 20% of the GDP. Caldia is the fifth-largest oil exporter and third-largest gas exporter in the world, and is one of the leading exporters in Euclea. Ríoga Pheitriliam na Ghlítteann (RPG) is the state oil company and accounts for the country's strategic petroleum sector. It is one of the few publicly owned companies in Caldia, escaping the trend of privatization. Its profits have been used by the government to balance the national budget. In 1993, the government established its first sovereign wealth fund - The State Pension Fund. It was funded with all oil revenue, including sale revenues, taxes, dividends, and licensing fees. It was done to oil revenues from overheating the economy, reduce uncertainty caused by the volatility of oil prices, and help the country deal with its aging population. There are two additional sovereign wealth funds: the State Investment Fund and the State Expenditure Fund.
The nation's petroleum resources are managed by the government through a combination of state ownership. It owns 75% of the shares of RPG as of 2015 and fully owns Peitreal, which is responsible for of exploration and production licenses for petroleum and natural gas. RPG the operates oil fields while Peitreal does not operate any fields and does not directly own the licenses. The Ministry of Petroleum oversees the operations of all government-owned oil and gas companies and the sovereign wealth funds associated with oil revenue. There is a state monopoly of the Caldish petroleum industry.
From 1965 to 2010, RPG has drilled 5085 oil wells, mostly in the North Sea and the Ghaillish Sea. 3672 wells are are táirgeadhrialta (regular production) and 1413 are taiscéalaíochtatoibreacha (exploration). 1405 of these have been terminated (toibreachacríochnaithe). Oil fields not yet in production phase include: Wistling Central—calculated size in 2013, 65–156 million barrels of oil and 10–40 billion cubic feet, (inghnóthaithe) of gas. and the Caithian Northern Field —calculated size 540 million barrels of oil, and 2–7 billion cubic meters (inghnóthaithe) of gas. Both oil fields are located in the North Sea.
There are two undersea pipelines that connect Caldia to mainland Euclea, running from County Holyhead to Werania's northern coast. A third has been proposed by the government, but has been met with opposition from environmental movements.
Sovereign wealth funds
The Caldish government operates three major sovereign wealth funds: the State Pension Fund, the State Investment Fund, and the State Expenditure Fund. All oil revenue generated by state oil ventures. The funds were established to help the government manage the rising influence of oil revenue over the Caldish economy and it help ensure its use in the state budget remained stable. In all funds, holdings are invested in a broad portfolio.
The oldest and largest of the funds is the State Pension Fund. Established in 1993, it has surpassed a value of €900 billion - equal to €98,000 per capita. It is the largest sovereign wealth fund in the world and controls about 1.5% of all listed shares in Euclea and over 1% of all publicly traded shares globally. A rule implemented in 2008 by the Walker government allows the fund to invest up to 60% of its capital in shares, an increase from the previous 40%. The rest is to be placed in bonds and real-estate. The rule came amid the Global Financial Crisis, starting in 2005, as the fund was able to buy more shares at low prices.
The State Investment Fund was established in 1995. It is smaller than the pension fund, with a value of approximately €400 billion. It is used by the state to invest in developing economies as part of the state's international aid program. Holdings can be found throughout West Euclea, Coius, and the Asterias. Critics of the fund have accused it of preying on developing markets. The smallest of the three sovereign wealth funds, the State Expenditure Fund, was established in 1999. Its holdings are valued at over €150 billion. Earnings from this fund are specifically used by the government to help fill gaps in the national budget, resulting from a low taxation rate. It was controversially raided by the Walker government in 2007 to bail out the Caldish financial services and banking industries.
The Ministry of Petroleum, in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance, oversees the three funds. The Caldish Central Bank is tasked with directing the investments of the funds. It operates investment offices in Verlois, Na Naoimh, and Jindao.
Agriculture and fishing
Agriculture accounts for over 50% of the total land area in Caldia, primarily based out of the southern regions of the country. Despite the mountainous landscape of the Highlands, agriculture is a significant sector there and accounts for a significant portion of the economy and employment. For much of its history, Caldia was an agrarian nation. The industry receives subsidies from the government, which were recently increased in 2017. It is part of the Common Agricultural Policy and receives subsidies from the Euclean Community. Caldia is a net food importer and has been since 2000, after a decline in the agricultural sector as the country moved towards a knowledge-based economy.
Caldia is also one of the world's largest exporters of fish, and the second largest in Euclea. Fish from fish farms and catch accounts for the second largest export product measured in value, behind oil. It is a member of the EC's Common Fisheries Policy, which was initially strongly resisted by the Caldish government until it was able to secure concessions to protect its fishing industry. As a country with a small domestic market, the policy was set to place heavy restrictions on the Caldish fishing industry. Whaling has a long history in Caldia. It is a major industry in Oileáin Oirthir and in Caithia. There are over 500 catches a year, with a quota of 600. Some governments have made attempts to curtail whaling, angering parts of the country involved in the trade.
Together, agriculture and fishing account for 5% of GDP and employment. They are overseen by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.
The country's three main international airports at Spálgleann, Garrafrauns and Shanbally serve many Euclean and intercontinental routes with scheduled and chartered flights. The Verlois and Spálgleann route is the second busiest international air route in Euclea, with 3.6 million people flying between the two cities in 2013 down from the 4.4 million who flew in 2003. Aer Glítteann is the flag carrier of Caldia, although Crownair is the country's largest airline. Crownair is one of Euclea's largest low-cost carriers, the 2nd-largest in terms of passenger numbers, and the world's largest in terms of international passenger numbers.
The main railway services in Caldia are provided by Córas Iompair Glítteann (CIG - Transport System Caldia). The majority of domestic passenger services are operated by Iarnród Ríoga (IR). Spálgleann is the centre of the network with its terminal, Grand Central Station (Stáisiún Lárnach Mór), linking to the country's cities and main towns. The Iarthuaisceart Iarnróid (II), which operates independently of CIG, provides passenger services from Shanbally to towns and cities along the country's northwestern coast.The country's high-speed rail is operated by IR between Shanbally, Spálgleann, Garrafrauns, and Invertwinc. IR operates long-haul trains, including night trains while its parent company, CIG, provides regional services. Examples of regional services are the Greater Spálgleann Commuter Rail, the Oileán Iarnród, and the Highland Line. Several companies operate freight trains, the largest of which is II. Investment in new infrastructure and maintenance is financed through the state budget, and subsidies are provided for passenger train operations. The Caldish railways underwent privatization in the 1980s after the Caldish State Railway was dissolved and parts of it were sold off to different ventures. An underwater rail tunnel connects Mannes with the mainland, while Piernás and Éirness are linked via over-sea bridges. A tunnel from Shanbally to Holyhead has been proposed several times, but one has yet to be constructed.
Motorways, national primary roads and national secondary roads are managed by the National Roads Authority, while regional roads and local roads are managed by the local authorities in each of their respective areas. The road network is primarily focused on the capital, but motorways have been extended to other cities as part of the Transport 19 capital investment program, as a result modern motorways have been completed between Spálgleann and a number of other major Caldish cities, linking the country's main population centers by road.
Caldia is home to several major warm water ports, such as those in Shanbally, Spálgleann, and Invertwinc. The largest port is in Shanbally, which has also been the center of the Caldish shipbuilding industry. There are also over fifteen smaller ports throughout the country. Historically, Caldia has acted as a way point between Euclean nations and their Asterian colonies, resulting in the establishment of thriving port cities and a mercantile class. The nation's ports played a crucial role during the Great War and were a leading factor for the occupation by Allied powers. Caldia's ports have played a crucial role in the establishment of the nation as a leading oil producing and exporting nation.
There are several car ferry connections offered to Ordennya, Varienland, Werania, and Azmara. The lines leave from Pennsea Harbor on the island of Holyhead, the Royal Port Spálgleann, and the Port of Shanbally. The routes from Spálgleann and Shanbally are also served by shipping lines. The Port of Shanbally is the busiest in Caldia when it comes to number of transported weight with lorries. The Shanbally - Riksdähl line originated during the 19th Century as a steam ferry route for trains, and today's ferries still carries the trains of the Shanbally to Västdal rail line during the summers, linking up Caldia to the Euclostar service for the season. Caldia has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, connecting the islands of Holyhead, Mannes, Piernás, and Éirness to the mainland. Goeldonia and Royal Caldish operate out of the highlands and lowlands respectively. Smaller car ferries link up the nation's many islands and are operated by small companies or local government authorities.
Caldia's energy market is largely privatized, a process beginning in the 1980s. According to government data from 2010, there was a total electricity production of 139 TWh. Electricity from hydropower accounted for 61 TWh (44%), and nuclear power delivered 65 TWh (47%). At the same time, the use of biofuels, peat etc. produced 13 TWh (9%) of electricity, while windpower produced 1 TWh (1%). Despite its strong oil industry, the government has favored exporting oil and gas and as such has not viewed it as a sustainable way to generate energy. An oil-phase out was achieved in the 1970s. The Ministry of Energy manages government energy policy.
In recent years, the government has acted to phased out the use of nuclear power. The legislature banned the construction of any new nuclear power plants in 2013, in favor of expanding hydropower and wind power. The government also began to implement energy taxes. Plans to introduce a carbon tax were widely unpopular and met with opposition within the government, from the public, and from trade unions. By 2017, electricity produced by windpower mills had increased to 11.5 TWh, a 115% increase. In the same year, Caldia was a net exporter electricity by 16 TWh.
Caldia's culture is one of Tenic origin, and is referred to as Ghaillish. It is one of the principal Tenic nations. Following the arrival of the Verique during the 11th century influenced Ghaillish culture, while the Verique themselves were largely integrated. The Ghaillish diaspora, resulting as a mix of colonial activities and forced migration, has resulted in the internationalisation of Ghaillish culture. The most notable population of Ghaillies outside of Caldia is found in Sheah, Lorcania. Ghaillies in Caldia and throughout the world have been leading figures in art, music, governance, and science.
Art and literature
For an extended period, the art scene in Caldia was mostly dominated by artwork from continental Euclea. The agrarian economy prevented a strong domestic art scene from emerging, leaving the country's nobility to look to foreign artists. During the 19th century as the Caldish economy begin to expand beyond agriculture, a truly Caldish era began. First, portraits emerged as popular followed by impressive landscapes. The first prominent Caldish artist was Bairre Ó Seanacháin, who was well known for his popular paintings of the Caldish Highlands. His work inspired many others, such as Áine Ní Sheoigh and Tairdhealbhach Ó Cuinn. As the art scene expanded, so did the methods employed. A famous realist painter was Órla Ní Chaonláin, known for paintings of prostitutes while Fearghus Ó Ceanndubháin was a famous symbolism and expressionist. Other artists of note is the Romantic painter Fionnuala Ní Sheoigh and Éamonn Ó Domhnaill, a prominent neo-romanticist.
Caldia has a long literary tradition, dating back to pagan Cruthan Cycle, a series of anonymous poems detailing the deities found in pre-Sotirian Caldia. The first copies date back to the sixth-century. Other major cycles recorded in similar manners are the Tailtarda Cycle, the Fianna Cycle, and the Túatha Cycle. The poems of these cycles focus on conflict on earth between humankind and mythical beings, the origin of Caldia's ancient clan system, and the legendary and semi-legendary ancient monarchs of Caldia. In the eighth-century, the process of Sotirianization brought Caldia into contact with Euclean learning in the years after the fall of the Solarian Empire. Caldish monasteries became centers of learning and the introduction of the Solarian alphabet allowed monks to preserve large swathes of the extensive oral literature and history which had existed in the Caldish Isles. They also made copies of hundreds of books from mainland Euclea, preserving works that would have otherwise been lost.
Caldish literature once again began to emerge during the Alastarian period, however it would again decline as conflict engulfed the islands between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. A renewed focus on literature began during the Caldish Reformation, resulting in the dissemination of new religious texts and cultural works sponsored by Ellen II. The two most prominent writers of the period, Mánus Ó Flanagáin and Mairéad Ní Cheallaighe, wrote dozens of pieces that were widely popular in Caldia and northern Euclea. Ó Flanagái's The Reverend of Dunmore detailed the life of a fictional clergyman during the Reformation, providing a fictional account of changes in Caldish society as the country broke away from Solarian Catholicism. Modern Caldish fiction emerged during the nineteenth century when Eilís Ní Chorráin first published her famous series, Inverhoe. It presented a Romanticized account of life in Caldia following the Dejarlist Wars. For her prominent works and famous peoms, Ní Chorráin is often considered to be Caldia's national author. Other prominent authors of the period included Máire Nic Coinnich, Bairre Mac Eochaidh, and Tadhg Mac Conmara. This is often considered the Golden Age of Caldish literature, led by the aforementioned "Big Four". During the twentieth century, Caldish writers have also contributed a number of significant works. There was also a renewed interest in the ancient Ghaillish cycles, many of which were adapted into period pieces.
Civil and human rights
Caldia is widely considered to be a progressive country, due to its long-standing acceptance of homosexuality and the status women have enjoyed in Caldish society. These are the results of lingering influences of Caldia's native Tenic pantheon and ancient customs.
For the majority of Caldia's history, women have enjoyed the same rights and legal status as men. They were allowed to own and inherit property and suffrage was introduced to both sexes at the same time. There is also a notable trend of matriarchy in various Caldish dynasties, which is often reflected in who was traditionally chosen from among the ruling dynasty to serve as monarch. In total, there have been 37 female monarchs of Caldia, more than any other country in the world. In recent times, there have also been nine female heads of government, another world record.
Homosexuality has a long and comparatively open history in Caldia. Dating back to the pre-Storian period, same-sex relationships have been common among both sexes. It was also not uncommon for concubines to be used to couples to reproduce, something often used by homosexual members of the nobility to continue the family line. However, the biological mother or father maintained no role in the upbringing of the children, which was left to the couple. Following the Sotirianization of Caldia, there have been several attempts to curtail homosexual activity, but all have failed. Bisexuality is also common in Caldia and generally sexual identity is non-controversial. Transgender people have also traditionally been accepted, as many of the gods in the Caldish pantheon were considered to be both male and female. There is a greater debate in Caldia over whether or not members of the Caldish LGBT community should participate in pride events, as they have not faced discrimination in Caldia as the community has elsewhere in the world. This is a debate that is ongoing within the LGBT community in Caldia as well as mainstream society. Caldia was the first country to legalize same-sex marriages, which have been legally sanctioned since the sixteenth century. There have been seven monarchs who were members of the LGBT community. The current monarch, Kenneth IV, is gay and is in a same-sex marriage.
The country's long history of progressivism has influenced its foreign policy. Caldia is a prominent advocate for the rights of women and the LGBT community world-wide. It has also advocated for the rights of ethnic and religious minorities and is a signatory of the Declaration of Universal Natural Rights.
Social values and etiquette
Caldish society is egalitarian and modern. Generally, there is an aversion to the non-essential and of discussing economic status. However, these values at times clash with government economic policy. There is a worsening wealth gap in Caldia, but the stigma surrounding talking about income has frustrated attempts bring the issue into the public sphere.
In Caldia, it is considered polite to be open and direct with others, adopting a no-nonsense attitude. Generally, there is often the desire for others to adhere to what is considered basic behavior though this is more informal and less overt in nature. At times, the directness of the Caldish will come off as rude or crude. The Caldish openly discuss many sensitive topics. There is an openness about sex, which children begin instruction on from a young age.
It is considered impolite and at times offensive to ask about religion or economic status, as both are considered to be private matters that should be discussed in the home.
Ghaillish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Ghaillish instrument is the East Highland Bagpipe, a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. Bagpipe bands, featuring bagpipes and assorted of drums, have spread throughout the world. These bands often showcase Ghaillish music styles while creating new ones.The Royal Spálgleann Military Tattoo is the world's largest display of bagpipe bands, featuring preformers from the Caldish Armed Forces, Tenic League, and International military bands. The clàrsach (harp), fiddle, and accordion are also traditional Caldish instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Ghaillish country dance bands. Ghaillish music is often considered to be part of the larger Tenic music genre.
The Royal Caldish Philharmonic Orchestra enjoys international fame and regularly tours Euclea. Notable composers include Dónal Ó Braonáin and Peigín Nic Chonmara.
Caldia has participated in the Euclovision Song Contest since the competition began and it is ranked among the best performing nations, securing its first win in 1965 when Ashling won with Sétanta, a romance song. She was one of the first Ghaillish musicians to gain an international following, in large part due to her Euclovision success. Her four albums have sold millions of copies internationally. Her ability to sign in both Estmerish and Gaullican helped her internationally, as few outside of Caldia and its former colonies speak or understand Ghaillish. Her success transformed the Ghaillish music industry, which began to export music at increased levels. As of 2018, the country was the fourth-largest music exporter after Gaullica, Estmere, and Werania. The industry reported over 500 million euclos in revenue that year.
Ghaillish music is featured on the popular show the Yes Factor, helping native performers gain international prominence. Today, there are many successful Caldish preformers in varying styles including Annie MacDouglas, Caoimhín Wiles, Eithne, Me2, No Direction, Purple Day, Tenic Women, and the The Duchess.
Theater and dance
There are three opera organisations in Caldia. the Royal Opera produces large-scale operas in Spálgleann, the Opera Theatre Company tours its chamber-style operas throughout the country, and the annual Royal Opera Festival, which promotes lesser-known operas, takes place during September and October, as part of the Spálgleann September Cultural Festival. The Royal Opera regularly performs at the opera house at St Ellen's Palace. The Royal Opera Festival also takes place at the palace.
Traditional Ghaillish dance is often characterised as performance dance, usually referred to as stepdance. Ghaillish stepdance, popularised by the show Gleandance, is notable for its quick leg movements, while both the body and arms remaining stationary. The solo stepdance is generally characterised by a controlled but not rigid upper body, straight arms, and quick, precise movements of the feet. The solo dances can either be in "soft shoe" or "hard shoe".
Ghaillish dress is often characterized by tartan (plaid in Asteria Superior) patterns in some form. Most often this is determined by familiar relations through Caldia's ancient clan system. Clans are thought to have first adopted a familiar tartan in the late 17th and early 18th century. Through the Royal Court of Familiar Arbitration, Caldia maintains an official registry of tartans.
Male Ghaillish dress includes a kilt (or trews), sporran, sgian dubh, and ghillies. Ghillies, or ghillie brogues, are traditional thick soled shoes without tongues and long laces. The long laces are wrapped around and tied above the ankles. This is done so that the shoes do not get pulled off in mud. The shoes lack tongues in order for the wearer's feet to dry more quickly in typically damp Caldish weather.
Female Ghaillish dress includes women's shoes, also called ghillies, that are tied in the same way. However, some women's ghillies have but have thin soles for indoor wear and dancing. Traditionally, women and girls do not wear kilts but may wear ankle-length tartan skirts. However, females serving in the armed forces often wear kilts. A tartan sash or shawl may also be worn.
Modern dress can vary from region to region, but generally consists of:
- Plain or tweed Aerach-, Cobh-, and Banríon-style jacket
- Belt and Buckle or Five-button waistcoat in matching, complementary or tartan material,
- Shirt with a turndown collar
- Long tie
- Black brogues
- Tartan, argyle, diced, or dark hose (white and off-white hose should be avoided)
- Flashes or garter ties
- Day or horse hair sporran
- Day Dress sgian dubh. Again less intricate than a full dress one, these are typically made of horn or antler
There are also the semi-formal, evening formal wear, black tie, and white tie versions of the dress. Many members of the aristocracy wear either the modern dress or evening formal dress on a regular basis. For formal events, such as banquets and weddings, it is not uncommon for the vast majority of attendants to wear the black tie or white tie versions of the dress.
There is also a separate dress for pipers and those in the armed forces, originating in their military uniforms.
The oldest structures in Caldia date back to the Neolithic period. These largely stone structures have been preserved to different capacities. Many of the Neolithic structures served a religious purpose, either as ritualistic sites or burial tombs. Stone structures from this period are mostly concentrated in the country's south, while wood structures were build in the north. There is a large amount of architecture from the Iron Age, much of which has been preserved. There are no known examples of Piraese-Solarian architecture in Caldia as its remote location meant the island was never conquered. In Caldia's northern regions, there is a long tradition of building with timber that was consistent in both the Neolithic and Iron Ages.
This was dominant until the arrival of Sotirianity in the 8th century. This resulted in the construction of an expansive network of monasteries and large monastic complexes made of stone. The Sotirian influence and unification of the islands under a single monarch resulted in the arrival of Solarianesque buildings. The nobility lived in ringforts and crannógs. As Caldish monarchs consolidated their power, stone structures were built throughout the north. The traditional styles of Highland woodworking were incorporated in many of these buildings. Ba Permanent settlements formed around monastic communities, forming proto-towns. Significant urban settlements developed after the onset of Verique influence starting in the 11th century. Solarianesque architecture grew steadily under Verique influence. Basic stone forts and and towers were largely replaced by structures that more closely resembled continental castles during the 12th century. This was the result of the Weranic crusade, which saw many of the island's simple fortifications easily occupied and destroyed. The most famous medieval castle in Caldia is Clochnoc Fortress, which dates back to the late 11th century. Castles and planned walled trading towns were built throughout Caldia, drawing inspiration from the planned towns built under the guidance of the Verique in the 11th century.
Throughout the post-crusade period known as the Splendid Centralization, the number of planned towns in Caldia more than tripled. Spálgleann was also rebuilt with significant continental influences. The expansion and development of cities resulted in the issuing of charters by Caldish monarchs. These gave select settlements special legal status and rights towns without charters did not have. Charters also determined the design and planning of towns. A large number of cathedrals were built between the 12th and 15th centuries. Garrafrauns Cathedral has the oldest known foundations of Caldia's preserved cathedrals, dating back to the 1230s. It took over 250 years to complete. Saint Adomnán's Cathedral in Spálgleann was founded in the late 12th century, but construction on the current church building began in the 14th century. Many of Caldia's cathedrals are built in the Verliquoian style. Due to the availability of limestone, Verliquoian architecture in Caldia frequently features the material. This is style is known as Limestone Verliquoian and is sometimes called Caldish Verliquoian.
Throughout the Ellenian period a significant number of mansions, castles, and fortresses were built. These were largely influenced by styles of Etrurian architecture. Baroque structures also became increasingly popular, and St Ellen's Palace was built in the style. Many examples of Baroque architecture are found in Spálgleann's New City, which was built during the 16th and 17th centuries. Over-time, these structures were used as a way for the Caldish monarchs to project new power in the post-Reformation period. They reflected their position as enlightened despots. Starting the the 19th century, the Neoclassical and Estmerish styles became dominant. Many government buildings were built in this style as Caldia underwent the process of democratization in the 19th century. Industrialization and urbanization resulted in new demands for architecture, and the Practicalist and Internationalist styles became increasing popular. These styles provided new opportunities for affordable living in large apartment complexes. More recently, Postmodern and Contemporary styles have been dominant. The most famous examples of Contemporary architecture in Caldia are Spalgleann's Barcodes and Teach-an-Chultúir.
Teilifís Raidió Náisiúnta (TRN) is Caldia's public service broadcaster. It is funded by a television licence fee, commercial advertising revenue, and additional funds provided by the Ministry of Culture. TRN also raises money through donation drives supported by viewers. TRN operates seven channels, with the most popular being TRN Amháin, which is the broadcaster's flagship channel and the oldest television channel in Caldia. Other independent national television networks include Cainéal 10, COXX, Gael TV, GBF, and YOG. A number of prominent Euclean television networks have dedicated channels in Caldia, however access is usually limited by subscription. Subscription-based television providers include Cooper-Mac Fearghusa and Television Caldia.
There are a significant number of national, regional, and local radio stations available throughout Caldia. TRN Radio operates six radio channels and GBF Radio has two channels. Regional and local programs are funded through the Ministry of Culture and by local government authorities. A 2016 survey showed that over 80% of Caldish people listened to a mix of national, regional, and local radio on a daily basis.
Traditionally, Caldia has had a competitive print media market. It is largely dominated by four competing national daily news papers, Státaire (The Statesman), An Teileagraf (The Telegraph), An Iris Spálgleann (The Spálgleann Journal), and An Náisiúnach (The National). In recent years, a fifth newspaper, An Tírghráthóir (The Patriot), has emerged onto the national scene. Regional weekly papers are also printed, as are national Sunday editions of select papers. A number of popular tabloids are also printed, however in recent years their circulation has steadily declined.
In 2015, the Ministry of culture reported that 87% of Caldish households had access to the internet while 71% had broadband access.
Caldish culinary traditions show the influence of the long farming and seafaring traditions of the country. Salmon, codfish, and other seafood are balanced by beef, cheese, dairy products, and breads. This is also supplemented by vegetables and other stretches. Examples of popular Cladish cuisine include bacon and cabbage, Cloghel beef, Skryne ham, smoked salmon, and rumbledethumps. Traditional breads include the Caldish flatbread, the prátaí tanaí, a potato bread, and rolla iascairí. A popular pastry is the cón na ríon, a waffle cookie. In recent decades, Euclean and global influences have begun to transform Caldish cuisine. Many in Caldia enjoy foods from other cultures as international and specialty restaurants have opened throughout the company.
Tea is the most popular beverage, however in recent years the popularity of coffee has grown. The most popular carbonated drink is Copar-Brew. Alcoholic drinks associated with Caldia include ginger wine, Caldish whiskey, Highland whiskey, and the Caldish stout.
The two main spectator sports are Euclean football and Ghaillish football. The All-Ghaillish Football League is the Caldish national league. There are sixteen women's teams and ten men's teams. In a break with most other Euclean countries, the women's football league is more popular than the men's league. Caldia has a strong women's national team having won a number of international titles including the gold medal for the 2018 Invictus Games. In recent years, the men's league has been growing in popularity. Successful Euclean footballers include Deirbhile Ní Sheanacháin, Bríd Nic Chearbhaill, The Earl of Corofin, Éamonn Ó Maoldhomhnaigh, and Niamh Nic Cheallach. Ghaillish football, which is native to Caldia, is also popular. It is governed by the Ghaillish Royal Athletics Association. Other Ghaillish games organised by the association include hurling, curling, and rounders - all of which are native to Caldia.
Rugby is another popular spectator sport and is organized under the Ghaillish Rugby Association. The Caldish Elite League is the domestic competition for rugby league teams. Caldia has competed well in international rugby contests, regularly making it to the semi-finals or finals for championships.
Golf is also a popular sport played in Caldia. It was invented in the nineteenth century and its popularity has grown beyond Caldia. The country hosts a number of major international golf tournaments and has over 300 golf courses. Horse sports are also popular in Caldia, especially among women and the aristocracy. Skiing is a popular winter pastime in the Highlands. Other popular sports include biking, shooting, swimming and track and field.
Caldia hosted the 2018 Invictus Games. It has participated in the games since their modern revival in 1898. While the country is small, it has a strategy of increasing its medal count by investing heavily in women's teams. It is a member of the International Football Federation and participates in the Coupe du monde championship. The Caldish's women's football team has performed well at the women's coupe, winning four titles. It is also a member of the regional Four Nations football championship, along with Azmara, Buckland, and Varienland.
The Highland games are a major sporting event native to Caldia. Sporting events held as a part of the games include the caber toss, sheaf toss, stone put, tug-of-war, and the weight throw. Dance competitions are usually held alongside the games, which also serve as celebrations of highland and Caldish culture.
Caldia ranks high among other nations in terms of the amount of tourists it receives. In 2014, it was estimated that tourism contributed to nearly 5% of the nation's gross domestic product. There has been a sudden growth in the industry, and it is estimated to have increased almost 20% since 2000. The country's notable landmarks and scenery attracted over 8 million visitors in 2015. The Caldish Highlands and the nation's historic cities are home to the most visited attractions. Spálgleann hosts a number of famous festivals, including the popular September Cultural Festival. Pennsea is home to a popular casino industry, attracting thousands of tourists each year.
The tourism industry employees a large number of workers. Tourism is largely seasonal in nature, with more than half of the tourists received visiting during the summer months. However, many tourists also visit during the winter months. People travel in order to see the polar night in the winter and the Aurora borealis which can be seen throughout the year. Tourists also visit to see the midnight sun during the summer months.
The country has a number of outdoor activities, which range from skiing, golf, boating, hiking, and fishing among many others. Ski resorts in the highlands attract thousands of visitors annually and are a major source of revenue in the tourism industry. Wildlife watching is popular due to the high number of animals. Hunting is also traditionally popular, though its popularity has declined in recent years.
Commercial cruises are increasingly popular in Caldia. These travel between major coastal and port cities located on the nation's southern coast. River cruises are also offered to Garrafrauns, the nation's second largest city. A large number of coastal cruises sail along the nation's jagged northern coast, offering sights of the Highlands and their famed sea-lochs. Many cruises arrive from ports in Werania and Estmere and are increasingly popular with retirees.
The national symbols of Caldia include the nation's flag and coat of arms. These include the traditional symbols of the unicorn and thistle. Purple and white are the national colors of Caldia, drawn from the nation's royal house. The personification of Caldia is Mother Caldia, alternatively known as Calidonia and Galidonia. The nation's patron saints are Saint Adomnán and Saint Ellen.
|1 January||New Year's Day|
|2 January||New Year's Holiday|
|1 February||Imbolc||Also known as St. Patrick's Day|
|12 February||Liberation Day|
|movable Friday||Good Friday||The Friday before Easter Sunday|
|movable Sunday||Easter Sunday|
|movable Monday||Easter Monday||The Monday after Easter Sunday|
|1 May||Labour Day||Also the culturally significant holiday of Beltane|
|20 May||National Day|
|9 June||St. Adomnán's Day|
|12 June||Election Day|
|1 August||Lughnasadh||Also known as St. Daireann's Day|
|7 September||St. Ellen's Day|
|11 October||King's Birthday||Celebration of the birthday of King Kenneth IV. (If 11 October falls on a Sunday, the holiday is celebrated on the 12th)|
|31 October||Samhain||Also known as St. Brendan's Day|
|30 November||Latreadha||Also known as St. Andrew's Day|
|6 December||St. Nicholas Day|
|24 December||Nativity's Eve||Also known as Noel's Eve|
|25 December||Nativity||Also known as Noel|
|26 December||Boxing Day|
|31 December||Oidhche Challainn||Literally translated as the Night of the Calends. Also known as New Year's Eve|