Grenesia


Commonwealth of Grenesia

Ṗeчпоспольита Ґрeнeска (Grenesian)
Zhechpospolita Greneska
File:Flag of Grenesia Flag
Flag
Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Anthem: Rota
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Location of Grenesia.png
Location of Grenesia
map of grenesia
Map of Grenesia
CapitalKarlich
Official languagesGrenesian
Recognised regional languagesHoritian
Ethnic groups
87% Grenesian
11% Horitian
2% others or not stated
Demonym(s)Grenesian
GovernmentMixed
• President
Stefan Bielak
• Prime Minister
Miroslav Rachek
LegislatureNational Assembly
Senate
Zyazd
Establishment
• first known ruler
1005
• Kingdom established
1285
• Renewed Kingdom
1489
• First Commonwealth
1581
• Second Commonwealth
1803
• Third Commonwealth
1947
• Fourth Commonwealth
1990
Area
• Total
287,854 km2 (111,141 sq mi)
Population
• 2018 estimate
35406000
• Density
123/km2 (318.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)estimate
• Total
2020 estimate
Gini (2018)21.37
low
HDI (2018)Increase 0.816
very high
CurrencyGrenesian plat (GNP (пл))
Time zoneUTC -3 (Western Argis Time)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+56
ISO 3166 codeGN
Internet TLD.gn; .гн

Grenesia (Grenesian: Ґрeнeзйа, tr. Grenezya grɛnɛzja, officially the Commonwealth of Grenesia, is a coastal country located in Argis on Eurth, bordering with the Keelpijp to the south and Kezanoi Sea to the east. It is divided into 12 provinces, covering an area of 287 854 square kilometres (111 141 sq mi), and has mostly mediterranean and humid continental climate. Grenesia's capital and largest city is Karlich. Other major cities include Mnikhovo, Tsieshytse, Gervazno, and Novy Ostrobod.

Etymology

The name "Grenezië" was first used by Variotan cartographers in 1041 and adapted for Anglish since the early 13th century, in reference to the peninsula inhabited by the Yasic clan of Grenesians (Greneśi) starting in the mid-6th century. Until the early 19th century, though, the Grenesians only used the demonym to name their nation, which means it was referred to as Krolestvo Greneskie (Grenesian Kingdom), Zhechpospolita Greneska (Grenesian Commonwealth) or Kray Greneski (Grenesian Land). The origin of the name Grenesians itself is disputed. Some historians claim that it derives from the Proto-Yasic word gorěti (to burn) while other are convinced that it originates from the word formation of grono (bunch, group, circle) and *sę (reflexive pronoun).

History

Origin

Visual reconstruction of Pzhemiezh settlement in national museum of history in Karlich.

The earliest cases of human activity on Grenesian soil date back to the 4th century BCE. Genetic and linguistic analyses show that both modern Grenesians and medieval rulers are related to Proto-Yasic tribes. Their first known settlements consisted of large huts and were walled with wooden palisades, some surrounded by a moat or built on islands. Warring tribes were eventually conquered and dominated by Grenesi, in the late 8th century. Although the first known historical mentions of a Grenesian ruler comes from the year 1005, none of them mentions his name.

Siemirad dynasty

Grenesia formed into a unified territory in the middle of the 11th century. The first historically confirmed ruler of Grenesia was Boguslav I, who was baptized in 1054, which initiated the eradication of Yasic ethnic beliefs and the Christianization of society. The first ruler to be crowned was the son of Boguslav I - Bozhymir the Brave. Continuing his father's policy, in 1071 he organized a convention in Orlov, during which the metropolis of Orlov and dioceses in Penknina (existed only until 1078), Tsieshytse and Mnikhovo were established. A peasant revolt against the church authority, or the so-called pagan reaction, occured in 1088. In 1092, a popular uprising broke out all over Grenesia. In 1285, after the death of Radoslav I the Shameless, Grenesia was divided among his descendants, which started a country’s fragmentation lasting almost 200 years. In the 14th century, Casimir I the Old and Casimir II the Righteous united two districts - Marasy and Zhyroslaviets, but their state fell apart again. The unification of the country (Zhyroslaviets and Greater Grenesia) was made by Ratsislav Karlich, who in 1420 was crowned king of Grenesia in Drougov. His son, Yaromir II the Great, effectively strengthened Grenesia’s position in the region - he expanded its territory, entered into compromise alliances and carried out numerous internal reforms, in particular in construction and the economy. After his childless death on November 5, 1453, the reign of the Siemirad dynasty as the rulers of Grenesia ended.

First Commonwealth

Grenesia was developing as a feudal state, and the landowners and the wealthy townsfolk became increasingly more powerful. In July 1581, most of the legislative power was transferred from the monarch to the Zyazd (parliament). This event marked the official transformation of Grenesia from a kingdom to a republic, while de facto it was governed by the oligarchy and the king. The head of the state was the monarch elected from the nobility, but the nation was ruled largely by the nobility itself, through a system of local assemblies with a central parliament. The Karlich Confederation (1644) guaranteed religious freedom for the Grenesian nobility and other people from privileged backgrounds. However, the peasants were still subject to severe limitations imposed on them by the nobility. From the beginning of the 18th century, the nobles' democracy, suffering from internal disorder, gradually declined, thereby leaving the once powerful Commonwealth vulnerable to foreign intervention or internal turmoil.

Second Commonwealth

In 1803 the Grenesian government structures overcame a major overhaul and also allowed the proletariat to participate in democratic procedures and to be elected to Zyazd and to the Senate, which was followed by a significant decline of the Grenesian economy. In In 1812, newly elected king Radoslav III, chosen in Grenesia's first popular vote not restricted to the nobility, renounced his royal title and declared himself the "lifetime president". The forming Grenesian democracy, in theory, was to provide every Grenesian with equal rights. However, selling and buying votes was a common practice. Moreover, peasants were often threatened by their masters not to take part in the voting and the state virtually kept its old feudal model. In 1845 numerous progressive legislations were passed and the State Police was founded in 1851. The Great Zyazd convened by Yeremi III the Old in 1869 successfully adopted the November Constitution. However, this document, accused by detractors of harbouring revolutionary sympathies, generated strong opposition from the Commonwealth's nobles and conservatives. By the end of the 19th century, the Commonwealth made attempts to implement fundamental internal reforms; with the second half of the century bringing much improved economy, significant population growth, and far-reaching progress in the areas of industry, education, intellectual life, art, and evolution of the social and political system. In the first half of the 20th century Grenesia saw its golden age in science, music, and literature. Education was made compulsory until the age of 18 in 1901 and the general populace became much more engaged in politics. Until 1938 Grenesia was becoming more and more politically unstable. Short-lived coalitions of different parties were forming and breaking apart, and the politicians were stigmatized with greed and corruption.

Third Commonwealth

Yedzhey Khyzhetski (March 1951)

The communist Grenesian Workers' Party (GPP), one of the largest and most stable parties of those times, was elected to the city council of the capital in 1942 and in 1946 it became the Grenesia's ruling party. The new authorities eliminated all opposition parties from public life, introduced political terror, and mass arrests of political opponents. As a result of the rigged parliamentary elections (1948), the vast majority of seats in the Legislative Zyazd were taken by the Popular Front (GPP, GPR, SL, PD).

In the first years after the communists took power, many social and political changes took place, including expropriation of magnates and landlords, liberation of peasants, nationalization of industry and land reform. In 1947 the Grenesian United People's Party was founded, which resulted in the actual introduction of a one-party system in Grenesia. In 1950 the state of Grenesia changed its name to the Third Commonwealth of Grenesia, and the Constitution of the Third Commonwealth of Grenesia was adopted and the party appointed Blazhey Kaminski as president. At the same time, police terror was increased as well as the persecution of the opposition, Salvian Catholic Church, and public activists. In 1956, the first general strike in the Third Commonwealth of Grenesia took place, and demonstrations in Volovloshch were bloodily suppressed by the army and militia.

In November 1960, Yedzhey Khyzhetski, along with a total of 830 insurgents, made an attempt to secede the area of Mnikhovo, and later riots also broke out in Novy Ostrobod. A division of the Army led by Adam Zakzhevski changed sides and joined Khyzhetski's rebellion, and later conquered the Novy Ostrobod military port along with the whole city. On 29 December 1961 the Yedzhey Khyzhetski's Free Republic was proclaimed, covering the area of the whole peninsula. However, it lacked international recognition and support. The hastily assembled partisan units could not stand a chance against the armies faithful to the state in the northern provinces of the country. The short-lived Republic ceased to exist just three months after its proclamation, with all Khyzhetski's generals arrested, the insurgency leader himself beheaded, and the insurgents pursued and executed for life if caught.

Starting in late 1964, the communist Grenesian government primarly focused on building a large army with the introduction of compulsory military service, extensively researched military technology, had a well developed espionage network within Grenesia, and, reportedly, planned to work on a space program. In the years 1965-1982 eight large military bases were constructed, three of which were military ports in strategic locations by the Kezanoi Sea. These sudden expenditures on military infrastructure resulted in inflation of the currency, growing state debt. Public dissent was again on the rise in the late 80s, starting with brutally suppressed miners' protest in Brunitsa in November 1989.

On May 17 1990 a paramilitary coup was initiated by Yakub Konarski's Council for Liberation in the city of Gervazno. Several days later, similar initiatives were started in other large cities of the Commonwealth. On 3 April 1991 the head of the regime stood down and fled to Fulgistan. By the end of the year the liberal New Era party was granted the majority of seats in the Parliament as a result of the first open parliamentary elections since 1946.

Fourth Commonwealth

A shock therapy programme, initiated in 1991, enabled the country to transform its socialist-style planned economy into a partially regulated free market economy. After the passage of the new Constitution on 7 January 1996, Stefan Bielak was elected president in the following elections.

Most notably, there were numerous improvements in human rights, such as freedom of speech, internet freedom (no censorship), civil liberties (1st class) and political rights (1st class), as ranked by House of Freedom non-governmental organization.


Politics

Government

The political doctrine of Grenesia is our State is a republic under the presidency of the President and the Grenesian current constitution dates from 1996. The government structure centers on the Council of Ministers, led by a prime minister. The President is dependent neither on the Zyazd nor the Senate and treated as a separate legislative chamber. The president is elected by popular vote for life period, unless taken down by death, referendum or abdication. The current president is Stefan Bielak and the prime minister is Miroslav Rachek.

Grenesian voters elect a tricameral parliament consisting of a 460-member lower house (Zyazd) consisting of politicians up to the age of 55 and a 100-member Senate (Senat), which consists of politician's in the age of 56 and older that had been elected for Zyazd. The president is the elected to serve as a one-man legislative chamber and as the head of state. The politicians for Zyazd are elected from county councils under direct representation and the Senat is elected under the alternative vote method, with one senator being returned from each of the 100 constituencies. The Zyazd is the lower house of the Grenesian parliament.

With the exception of ethnic minority parties, only candidates of political parties who receive at least 5% of the total national vote can enter the Zyazd. When sitting in a joint session, members of the Zyazd and Senat form the National Assembly (the Zgromadzenie Narodove). The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: when a new president takes the oath of office; when an indictment against the President of the Republic is brought to the State Tribunal (Trybunal Stanu); and when a president's permanent incapacity to exercise his duties due to the state of his health is declared. To date only the first instance has occurred.

The judicial branch plays a vital role in decision-making processes. Its major institutions include the Supreme Court (Sod Naivyzhshy); the Supreme Administrative Court (Nachelny Sond Administratsyiny); the Constitutional Tribunal (Trybunal Konstytutsyiny); and the State Tribunal (Trybunal Stanu). On the approval of the Senat, the Zyazd also appoints the ombudsman or the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (Zhechnik Prav Obyvatelskikh) for a five-year term. The duty of the ombudsman is to guard the observance and implementation of the rights and liberties of Grenesian citizens and residents, of the law and of principles of community life and social justice.

Law

The Constitution of Grenesia is the supreme law in modern Grenesia, and the Grenesian legal system is built upon the principle of civil rights, governed by the code of Civil Law. The first Grenesian legal act of its kind was implemented on 11 November 1869 by the Zyazd of the First Commonwealth of Grenesia, instituted as a Government Act (Grenesian: Ustava Zhondova). Most importantly it was applied in an attempt to fix major political shortcomings of the 'nobles democracy'.

The November Constitution introduced political equality between the noblility, townspeople and the peasants. It also guaranteed separation of Salvian Catholic Church from the government, while obligating to protect all cultivated faiths, including the native belief, from persecutions on religious background. The Constitution was periodically abandoned following proclamation of the communist government in 1947 and the Kaminski's dictatorship had no such legal act.

The current Constitution of Grenesia, also called the April Constitution, was adopted by the National Assembly of Grenesia on 7 April 1996, which coincided with the ascension of Stefan Bielak to the presidential seat. The modern Grenesian Constitution, while restoring and expanding civil rights and political freedom, also introduced gender equality and was enriched with amendments regarding contemporary issues needing legal clarification. Currently, in Grenesia abortion is allowed only in special circumstances, such as when the woman's life or health is endangered by the continuation of pregnancy, when the pregnancy is a result of a criminal act, or when the fetus is seriously malformed. Homosexuality is legal, however gay marriages are not recognized as of 2019. Although justified hormone therapy is permitted, gender change is legally not recognized. Citizens are also legally entitled to end their lives. Cannabis may be legally purchased, however, consumption of intoxicants in public places is strictly forbidden.

The Constitution guarantees a multi-party state, the freedom of religion and assembly, and specifically casts off many Communist ideals to create a local 'free market economic system'. It also puts empasis on ecologically sound public policy and acknowledges the inviolabity of the home, the right for trade unions, whilst at the same time prohibiting practices of forced medical experimentation and torture.

Administrative divisions

Grenesia is a unitary state, divided into 12 lendas (plural: lendy (льęды), singular: lenda (льęдa). A system of local self-governments is appointed for public tasks that are not reserved to other authorities. Administrative authority at lenda level is shared between a government-appointed lendzianin (governor), an elected regional assembly (maly zyazd) and a lenda marshal, an executive elected by that assembly.

The lendas are subdivided into gmins (often referred to in English as counties), and these are further divided into poviats (also known as communes or municipalities). Major cities normally have the status of both poviat and gmin. Grenesia has 12 lendas, 2400 gmins (including 47 cities with gmin status), and 1,844 poviats.

Map of lendas.svg
Lenda Capital city or cities
in Anglish in Grenesian
Greater Grenesia vielkogreneska (виeлькoґрeнeскa) Pzhemiezh
Karlich karlitska (кaрльицкa) Karlich
Lesser Grenesia malogreneska (мaлoґрeнeскa) Bogdaniets
Lower Serbian dolnoserbska (дoльнoсeрбскa) Sroki
Marasy maraska (мaрaскa) Vlazhno
Novy Ostrobod novoostrobodzka (нoвooстрoбoдзкa) Novy Ostrobod
Pobzhezhe pobzheska (пoбṗeскa) Yasitov / Pobzhezhe
Pzhypzhesmytska
(By-The-Isthmus)
pzhypzhesmytska (пṗыпṗeсмыцкa) Lubogoshch
Tsieshytse tsieshytska (циeшыцкa) Tsieshytse
Upper Serbian gornoserbska (ґóрнoсeрбскa) Carne Góle
Zhyroslavitse zhyroslavitska (жырoслaвицкa) Zhyroslavitse
Zremb-Brunitsa zrembsko-brunitska (зрeмбскo-брунитскa) Zremb / Brunitsa

Military

The Grenesian armed forces are defense oriented and primarly base on Navy and Air Force, nevertheless Land Forces and Special Forces are also fully active. The military is subordinate to the Minister for Defence. However, its commander-in-chief is the President of the Commonwealth. The total size of the Grenesian army is estimated at around 120,700 soldiers (2017). Its navy conducts operations such as maritime patrol, search and rescue for the waters under Grenesian sovereignty, as well as hydrographic measurements and research. The current position of the Grenesian Air Force is much the same; it routinely patrols the borders and surroundings of restricted areas, but otherwise has not actively engaged in combat.

Demographics

Population

The Commonwealth of Grenesia has a population of 35,406,000 people, of which around 61% lives in urban areas. The average fertility rate is 1,4 children, and the average life expectancy is 79,7 years: 77,4 for men and 82 for women.



Languages

Łokaśina — a bilingual (Grenesian- Serbohoritian) road sign with the village name

Grenesian (ґрeнeшчызнa, greneshchyzna) belongs to the western branch of Yasic languages. It is the official and predominant spoken language in Grenesia, spoken by around thirty six million people around the Wurld. Its written standard is the Grenesian adaptation of Cyrillic alphabet. There are several letters that are specific for the Grenesian Cyrillic script, namely ó, ṗ, ę and ǫ as well as digraphs. It notably lacks several Cyrillic characters: ё, щ, э, ю and я. Its orthography, while including the soft sign (ь), also omits the hard sign (ъ). English transliteration of Grenesian script also transcripts the nasal ǫ and ę vowels respectively ason and en. Among several regional ethnolects that sport slight differences from standard Grenesian, there is also one regional language (Serbohoritian, spoken by around 390 000 people). The Serbohoritian alphabet is based on the Aroman script but uses diacritics such as the acute accent and caron. Despite being from the same language family as Grenesian, these languages are only partially mutually intelligible.

Culture

Music

Artists from Grenesia, including famous musicians such as Šery, Rakovetski, Yarosh, Podvalski and Yakubovich, and traditional, regionalized folk composers create a lively and diverse music scene, which even recognizes its own music genres, such as sung poetry. The origins of Grenesian music can be traced to the 13th century; manuscripts have been found in Stary Komorov containing polyphonic compositions. Other early compositions, such as the melody of $name and $name (a coronation greneise for Grenesian kings by an unknown composer), may also date back to this period, however, the first known notable composer, Martin of Zhabnitse, lived in the 15th century. During the 16th century, two main musical groups – both based in Karlich and belonging to the King and Archbishop of Karlich – led to the rapid development of Grenesian renaissance music. Pablo Rostini (also known as Pavel Rostynski), a native-born Limonaian who lived in Karlich from about the age of four, became a renowned lutenist at the court of Stanislav I, and not only imported some of the musical styles from eastern Argis, but blended them with native folk music. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Grenesian baroque composers mostly wrote either liturgical music or secular compositions such as concertos and sonatas for voices or instruments. At the end of the 18th century, Grenesian classical music evolved into national forms like the greneise. Also, Horitia's Dźiwona, which premiered in 1794, is regarded as the first Grenesian national opera. Traditional Grenesian folk music has had a major effect on the works of many well-known Grenesian composers, and no more so than on Hanoš Šery, a widely recognised national hero of the arts. All of Šery's works involve the piano and are technically demanding, emphasising nuance and expressive depth. As a great composer, Šery invented the musical form known as the instrumental ballade and made major innovations to the piano sonata, mazurka, waltz, nocturne, greneise, étude, impromptu and prélude, he was also the composer of a number of greneises which borrowed heavily from traditional Grenesian folk music. It is largely thanks to him that such pieces gained great popularity throughout Argis during the 19th century. Several Grenesian composers such as Adamovich would later go on to draw inspiration from Šery's folk-influenced style. Nowadays the most distinctive folk music can be heard in the towns and villages of the highland north-west, particularly in the region surrounding the winter resort town of $name. Today Grenesia has an active music scene, with the jazz, blues, and swing genres being particularly popular among the contemporary populace. Grenesian jazz musicians such as Mikhal Halinski created a unique style, which was most famous in the 1920s and 1990s and continues to be popular to this day. Since the fall of communism, Grenesia has become a major venue for large-scale music festivals, chief among which are the Open Air Festival, Tsieshytse Festival and Nova Sol Festival.

Cuisine

Traditional Grenesian cuisine is largely based on livestock meat, especially pork, beef and chicken, however it also includes venison, such as pheasant or rabbit. Grenesia is renowned for a variety of breads, cereals and pseudocereals. Grenesian meals also use mushrooms, berries, and honey. The main course usually includes a serving of meat, vegetables or sauerkraut, and sometimes served sweet with fruits, mead or sweet wine. The side dishes are usually potatoes or rice. Fast food chains are unpopular with Grenesians who rather tend to favor small time privately owned restaurants, however not without government subsidies for local eating places. The national alcoholic drinks are wine, mead and various kinds of vodkas, while one of the most popular soft drinks is bread kvass, which is said to be widely preferred over cola or other branded fizzy drinks.

Sport

Handball and volleyball are among the most popular sports in Grenesia. Other renowned disciplines include association football, tennis, track and field, motorcycle speedway, fencing, archery, shooting sports, and water sports - most notably swimming, sailing and rowing.