Grenesia

Commonwealth of Grenesia

Ṗeчпоспольита Ґрeнeска (Grenesian)
Zhechpospolita Greneska
File:Flag of Grenesia Flag
Flag
Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Anthem: Rota
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Location of Grenesia.png
Location of Grenesia
map of grenesia
Map of Grenesia
CapitalKarlich
Official languagesGrenesian
Recognised regional languagesIzerian
Ethnic groups
98% Grenesian
2% others or not stated
Demonym(s)Grenesian
GovernmentDirect democracy
• President
Stefan Bielak
• Prime Minister
Anna Kędzyor
LegislatureNational Assembly
Senate
Zyazd
Establishment
• first known ruler
1005
• Kingdom established
1285
• Renewed Kingdom
1489
• First Commonwealth
1581
• Second Commonwealth
1803
• Third Commonwealth
1947
• Fourth Commonwealth
1990
Area
• Total
287,854 km2 (111,141 sq mi)
Population
• 2018 estimate
35406000
• Density
123/km2 (318.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)estimate
• Total
2020 estimate
Gini (2018)21.37
low
HDI (2018)Increase 0.816
very high
CurrencyGrenesian plat (GNP (пл))
Time zoneUTC -3 (Western Argis Time)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+56
ISO 3166 codeGN
Internet TLD.gn; .гн

Grenesia (Grenesian: Ґрeнeзйа, tr. Grenezya grɛnɛzja, officially the Commonwealth of Grenesia, is a coastal country located in Argis on Eurth. It is divided into 12 provinces, covering an area of 287 854 square kilometres (111 141 sq mi), and has mostly mediterranean or humid continental climate. Grenesia's capital and largest city is Karlich. Other major cities include Mnikhovo, Vlazhno, Tsieshytse, Gervazno and Bialy Sad.

Etymology

The name "Grenesia" was first used by Girkmandian cartographers in 1041, in reference to the peninsula inhabited by the Yasic clan of Grenesians (Grenesi), who inhabited the Drva river basin of present-day Drvanski region starting in the mid-6th century. In past the Grenesians referred to their nation as Królestvo Greneske (Grenesian Kingdom), Zhechpospolita Greneska (Grenesian Commonwealth) or Kray Greneski (Grenesian Land). The origin of the name Grenesians itself is disputed, however some historians claim that it derives from the Proto-Yasic word gorěti (to burn).

History

Origin

Visual reconstruction of Turych settlement in national museum of history in Karlich.

The earliest cases of human activity on Grenesian soil date back to 4th century BCE. Genetic and linguistic analysis show that both modern Grenesians and medieval rulers are related to Proto-Yasic tribes. Their first known settlements consisted of large huts and were walled with wooden palisade, some surrounded by a moat or built on islands. Warring tribes were eventually conquered and dominated by ’’Grenesi’’, at those times also called 'the tribe of fire' or 'the people of burning', in late 5th century CE. Although the first known historical mention of a Grenesian ruler comes from year 1005, neither of them mentions his name.

$dynasty1 dynasty

In 1453, Grenesia fragmented into several smaller duchies when prince Mats'ko I the Shameless divided his land among his sons. In 1489, after a number of earlier unsuccessful attempts by regional rulers at uniting the Grenesian dukedoms, Yarovit III Karlich from the Suvozhnan branch of the Popiel dynasty ascended the throne and became the first king of the reunified Grenesia. However, he had to issue a number of privileges for the knightshood in order to consolidate his power. Moreover, Orlovo was burned to the ground during the regional uprising in 1475, so Yarovit Karlich was forced to move the capital to Bardzenets, which was renamed after him when he died in 1496.

First Commonwealth

Grenesia was developing as a feudal state, and the landowners and the wealthy townsfolk became increasingly powerful. In July 1581, most of the legislative power was transferred from the monarch to the Zyazd (parliament). This event marked the official transformation of Grenesia from a kingdom to a republic, while it was actually governed by the oligarchy and the king. The head of the state was the monarch elected from the nobility, but the nation was ruled largely by the nobility itself, through a system of local assemblies with a central parliament. The Karlich Confederation (1644) guaranteed religious freedom for the Grenesian nobility and other people from privileged background. However, the peasants were still subject to severe limitations imposed on them by the nobility. From the beginning of the 18th century, the nobles' democracy, suffering from internal disorder, gradually declined, thereby leaving the once powerful Commonwealth vulnerable to foreign intervention or internal turmoil.

Second Commonwealth

In 1803 the Grenesian government structures overcame a major overhaul, allowing the proletariate to participate in democratic procedures and to be elected to Zyazd and to the Senate. In 1834 the first political parties were established: People's Party, and the Elitists, respectively representing the interests of the poorest and of the nobility. However, selling and buying votes was a common practice. Moreover, peasants were often threatened by their masters not to vote and the state virtually kept its old feudal model. In 1845 a legislation regarding punishing of mistreating peasants was passed and State Police was founded in 1851. The Great Zyazd convened by Yeremi III the Old in 1869 successfully adopted the November Constitution. However, this document, accused by detractors of harbouring revolutionary sympathies, generated strong opposition from the Commonwealth's nobles and conservatives. By the end of the 19th century, the Commonwealth made attempts to implement fundamental internal reforms; with the second half of the century bringing much improved economy, significant population growth, and far-reaching progress in the areas of industry, education, intellectual life, art, and evolution of the social and political system. In the beginning of 20th century newly elected king Mats'ko III renounced his royal title, sold his manor and declared himself the 'lifetime president'. In the first half of the century Grenesia saw its golden age in science, music, and literature. Education was made compulsory until the age of 18 in 1901 and the general populace became much more engaged in political life. In 1938 Grenesia was becoming politically unstable. Short-lived coalitions of different parties were forming and breaking apart, and the politicians were stigmatized with greed and corruption.

Third Commonwealth

Yędzhey Khyzhetski (March 1959)

The communist Karlich Workers' Party, one of the largest and most influential parties of those times, was elected to the city council of the capital in 1942 and in 1946 it became the Grenesia's ruling party. Henric Batuta was made the new president, allegedly chosen in democratic elections, turned out to be closely affiliated wiith the hegemonic communist party. In 1949 he was made to proclaim the Third Commonwealth. The reign of the communist party was notable for frequent breaking of the November Constitution, although the document was not oficially abolished. Initially, he announced to expropriate the nobility and dissolved the Senate, which, according to party backed press, had composed solely of wealthy and influential oligarchy. In 1949, the act on the structure of common courts was signed, and the presoident made the High Court and the whole judiciary body fully dependant on him. In 1979 the 'people's president' introduced centrally planned economy, began to apply increasingly intrusive forms of propaganda, replaced State Police with his militia, and appointed secret police.

In November 1982, Yędzhey Khyzhetski, together with a total of 1830 troops, made am attempt to secede the area of Mnikhovo and Lubogoshch and proclaimed the Yędzhèy Khyzhètski's Free Republic. Its independence was announced on 29 November. However, it ceased to exist within fifty six days.

On May 17 1990 a rebellion started by Stefan Bielak's Council for Liberation. It broke out in Gervazno and no sooner similar initiatives were started in other large cities of the Commonwealth. Nation-wide crisis, food shortages, and overall poor quality of life largely contributed to its success, and after two weeks of fighting the rebels were controlling major roads, train stations, and also the seaport in Karlich. The regime, feeling powerless against the raging masses, decided to surrender on 3 April 1990. By the end of the year the liberal left New Era party was granted the majority of seats in the Parliament in result of first open democratic elections since 1946.

Fourth Commonwealth

A shock therapy programme, initiated in 1991, enabled the country to transform its socialist-style planned economy into a market economy. After the passage of the new Constitution on 7 January 1996, Stefan Bielak was elected president in the following elections.

Most notably, there were numerous improvements in human rights, such as freedom of speech, internet freedom (no censorship), civil liberties (1st class) and political rights (1st class), as ranked by House of Freedom non-governmental organization.

Politics

Government

Grenesia is a direct democracy, with a president as a head of state, whose current constitution dates from 1996. The government structure centers on the Council of Ministers, led by a prime minister. The president is dependent neither on the Zyazd nor the Senate and treated as a separate legislative chamber. The president is elected by popular vote for life period, unless taken down by death, referendum or abdication. The current president is Stefan Bielak and the prime minister is Anna Kędzyor.

Grenesian voters elect a tricameral parliament consisting of a 460-member lower house (Zyazd) consisting of politicians up to the age of 55 and a 100-member Senate (Senat), which lives up to its name and is made of 56 year old politicians or older. The president is the elected to serve as a one-man legislative chamber and as the head of state. The politicians for Zyazd are elected from county councils under direct representation and the Senat is elected under the first-past-the-post method, with one senator being returned from each of the 100 constituencies. The Zyazd is the lower house of the Grenesian parliament.

With the exception of ethnic minority parties, only candidates of political parties who receive at least 5% of the total national vote can enter the Zyazd. When sitting in joint session, members of the Zyazd and Senat form the National Assembly (the Zgromadzenie Narodove). The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: when a new president takes the oath of office; when an indictment against the President of the Republic is brought to the State Tribunal (Trybunal Stanu); and when a president's permanent incapacity to exercise his duties due to the state of his health is declared. To date only the first instance has occurred.

The judicial branch plays a vital role in decision-making processes. Its major institutions include the Supreme Court (Sąd Naivyzhshy); the Supreme Administrative Court (Nachelny Sąd Administratsyiny); the Constitutional Tribunal (Trybunal Konstytutsyiny); and the State Tribunal (Trybunal Stanu). On the approval of the Senat, the Zyazd also appoints the ombudsman or the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (Zhechnik Prav Obyvatelskikh) for a five-year term. The duty of the ombudsman is of guarding the observance and implementation of the rights and liberties of Grenesian citizens and residents, of the law and of principles of community life and social justice.

Law

The Constitution of Grenesia is the supreme law in modern Grenesia, and the Grenesian legal system is built upon the principle of civil rights, governed by the code of Civil Law. The first Grenesian legal act of its kind was implemented on 11 November 1869 by the Zyazd of the First Commonwealth of Grenesia, instituted as a Government Act (Grenesian: Ustava Zhądova). Most importantly it was applied in an attempt to fix major political shortcomings of the 'nobles democracy'.

The November Constitution introduced political equality between the noblility, townspeople and the peasants. It also guaranteed separation of Salvian Catholic Church from the government, while obligating to protect all cultivated faiths, including the native belief, from persecutions on religious background. The Constitution was periodically abandoned following proclamation of the communist government in 1947 and the Kamen'ski's dictatorship had no such legal act.

The current Constitution of Grenesia, also called the April Constitution, was adopted by National Assembly of Grenesia on 7 April 1996, which coincided with the ascension of Stefan Bielak to the presidental seat. The modern Grenesian Constitution, while restoring and expanding civil rights and political freedom, also introduced gender equality and was enriched with ammendments regarding to contemporary issues needing legal clarification. Currently, in Grenesia abortion is allowed only in special circumstances, such as when the woman's life or health is endangered by the continuation of pregnancy, when the pregnancy is a result of a criminal act, or when the fetus is seriously malformed. Homosexuality is legal, however gay marriages are not recognized as of 2019. Although justfied hormone therapy is permitted, gender change is legally not recognized. Citizens are also legally entitled to end their lives. Cannabis may be legally purchased, however, consumption of intoxicants in public places is strictly forbidden.

The Constitution guarantees a multi-party state, the freedom of religion and assembly, and specifically casts off many Communist ideals to create a local 'free market economic system'. It also puts empasis on ecologically sound public policy and acknowledges the inviolabity of the home, the right for trade unions, whilst at the same time prohibiting practices of forced medical experimentation and torture.

Military

The Grenesian armed forces are defense oriented and primarly base on Navy and Air Force, nevertheless Land Forces and Special Forces are also fully active. The military is subordinate to the Minister for Defence. However, its commander-in-chief is the President of the Commonwealth. The total size of Grenesian army is estimated at around 120,700 soldiers (2017). Its navy conducts operations such as maritime patrol, search and rescue for the waters under Grenesian sovereignity (excluding Keelpijp isthmus), as well as hydrographic measurements and research. The current position of the Grenesian Air Force is much the same; it routinely patrols the borders and surroundings of restricted areas, but otherwise has not actively engaged in combat.

Demographics

Population

The Commonwealth of Grenesia has a population of 35,406,000 people, of which around 61 % lives in urban areas. The average fertility rate is 1,4 children, and the average life expectancy is 79,7 years: 77,4 for men and 82 for women.



Languages

khzhąshchyzhevoshytse — a bilingual (Grenesian-Izerian) road sign with the village name

Grenesian (ґрeнeшчызнa, greneshchyzna) belongs to the western branch of Yasic languages. It is the official and predominant spoken language in Grenesia, spoken by around thirty six million people around the Wurld. Its written standard is the Grenesian adaptation of Cyrillic alphabet. There are several letters that are specific for the Grenesian Cyrillic script, namely ó, ṗ, ę and ǫ, with the notable exclusion of ё, щ, э, ю and я. Its orthography, while including the soft sign (ь), also omits the hard sign (ъ). Among numerous regional ethnolects, there is also one regional language (Izerian, spoken by around 390 000 people). The Izerian alphabet is based on the Latin script but uses diacritics such as the acute accent and caron. It is only partially mutually intelligible with Grenesian, while being closely related to Serbian.

Culture

The Grenesian culture was always closely connected with the traditional Grenesian religion, however gradual decrease of its influence has been observed both by cultural development over hundreds of years and by the artistic stagnation beginning in the fifties and ending in 1990. Modern Grenesian popular culture is an eclectic mix of different socio-cultural periods of the 20th century, and also attempts to reconstruct genres of various arts from the age of cultural recession.

Cuisine

Traditional Grenesian cuisine is largely based on livestock meat, especially pork, beef and chicken, however it also includes venison, such as pheasant or rabbit. Grenesia is renowned for a variety of breads, cereals and pseudocereals. Grenesian meals also use mushrooms, berries, and honey. The main course usually includes a serving of meat, vegetables or sauerkraut, and sometimes served sweet with fruits, mead or sweet wine. The side dishes are usually potatoes or rice. Fast food chains are unpopular with Grenesians who rather tend to favor small time privateely owned restauralts, however not without government subsidies for local eating places. The national alcoholic drinks are wine, mead and various kinds of vodkas, while one of the most popular soft drinks is bread kvass, which is said to be widely preferred over cola or other branded fizzy drinks.

Sport

Handball and volleyball are among the most popular sports in Grenesia. Other renowned disciplines include association football, tennis, track and field, motorcycle speedway, fencing, archery, shooting sports, and water sports - most notably swimming, sailing and rowing.