Mokhavian language

Mokhavian
Nanay
вӹшосы єԓӹмӹйорах
вӹшосы наӈайорах
Mokhavian language text.png
Pronunciation[vɯˈʂɔsɨ ˈjɛlɯmɯjɔɾax]
[vɯˈʂɔsɨ ˈnanajɔɾax]
Native to Qazhshava
 Mokhavia
RegionSouthern Thuadia
EthnicityMokhavians
Native speakers
L1 (Anteria): 58,400,000
L2 (Anteria): 24,600,000

L1 (Eurth): 4,570,000
L2 (Eurth): 630,000
Paleo-Qazhshavan
  • Elmo-Adusian
    • Adusian
      • Mokhavic
        • Nanaic
          • Mokhavian
Standard forms
Pala
Dialects
  • Pala
  • Echin
  • Saqġa
  • Marsha
  • Laurentine
  • Nashean
Govoric
Official status
Official language in
 Qazhshava
Recognised minority
language in

 Mokhavia
Language codes
ISO 639-1mh
ISO 639-2mkh
ISO 639-3-
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Anteria

The Mokhavian language is the widely spoken of it's family, called Mokhavic, and the official language of the nation of Qazhshava. It is an ancient Thuadian tounge with no known ancestral conection to the surrounding Thuado-Thrismaran languages.

Eurth

The mokhavian langauge is an indigenous langauge spoken in central Argis, it is believed to be conected to the Vostauc langauges, mainly the Elmoric langauge, due to similar cognates, this hypothesis states that the Vostauc-Mokhavic langauges split around 5000 BCE.

Classification

As of yet, any attempts to link the Mokhavian languages to any other languages in the world have failed, altough some still believe its a very old relative to the Thuado-Thrismaran languages/Indo-European languages, which is only backed up by similar features which have been speculated and some proven to have come due to influence from said languages, and some reconstructed-proto words and existign root words that seem to have been borrowod from early forms of the slavic and germanic languages.

Dialects

The standart form of the Mokhavian language is based on the mezhian dialect, also known as the Southern Hill dialect.

History

TBA

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k q
voiced b d
Affricate voiceless t͡s
t͡ɬ
c͡ç
voiced d͡z ɟ͡ʝ
Fricative voiceless f s ʂ (ʂʷ) x
voiced v ð (ðʷ) z ʐ ɣ (ɣʷ)
Aproximant voiced w l
ɬ
j ɥ
voiceless ʍ
Tap & Trill voiced ɾ

Vowels

Front Central Back
R- R+ R- R+ R- R+
Close i ɨ ɯ̞ u
Open-Mid ɛ ɔ
Open a~ɑ

Stress

Stress in Mokhavian used to fall on the first syllable of the root, and rarely on other syllables, but in the last few decades a stress shift has occured and currently stress isnt of much importance, mostly depending on the speaker.

Writing System

Mokhavian is written using the Govoric script, which was adopted around the 11th century, and used ever sence
Govoric version:

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Дз дз Е е Є є Ж ж Ӝ ӝ
З з Ҙ ҙ И и Й й К к Ӄ ӄ Л л Ԓ ԓ М м Н н
Ӈ ӈ О о П п Р р С с Т т Тԓ тԓ У у Ў ў Ӱ ӱ
Ф ф Х х Хў хў Ц ц Ч ч Ӵ ӵ Ш ш Ы ы Ӹ ӹ Ь ь
Ю ю Я я


In the late 18th cnetury Lakhian and Lakkathan traders and travlers coming back from the Qazhshavan colony in Encessia brought back the Mkhedruli script which was adopted for their languages, due to the area being hard to access at the time, literacy rates in the mountains were low compared to other regions and the Mkhedruli script started being tought by locals to locals, eventually becoming part of the culture there.

Detailed table

Govoric Name IPA Rom. Mkhe. Notes
А а а /a~ɑ/ a /ɐ/ when reduced.
Б б бӹ /b/ b
В в вӹ /v/ v
Г г гӹ /ɣ/ g გ/ღ
Д д дӹ /d/ d
Дз дз дзӹ /d͡z/ dz
Е е е /ɛ/ e /e~ɪ/ when reduced.
Є є є /jɛ/ ye ი́ე /je~jɪ/ when reduced.
Ж ж жӹ /ʒ/ ž
Ӝ ӝ жӹ /ɟ͡ʝ/ Ǧ ǧ
З з зӹ /z/ z
Ҙ ҙ ҙӹ /ð/ đ ზ̭
И и и /i/ i
Й й йӹ /j/ y ი́ It appears as a first letter and after a vowel.
К к кӹ /k/ k
Ӄ ӄ ӄӹ /q/ q
Л л лӹ /l/ l In words, between vowels gets changed to ⟨ԓ⟩. (aҙыл -> aҙыԓым)
Ԓ ԓ ԓӹ /ɬ/ ł ლ᷄
Тԓ тԓ тԓӹ /t͡ɬ/ თლ᷄
М м мӹ /m/ m
Н н нӹ /n/ n In words, between vowels gets changed to ⟨ӈ⟩. (єн -> єӈым)
Ӈ ӈ ӈӹ /ŋ/ ň ნ̭
О о о /ɔ/ o
П п пӹ /p/ p
Р р рӹ /ɾ/, /r/ r
С с сӹ /s/ s
Т т тӹ /t/ t
У у у /u/ u
Ў ў ўӹ /w/ w ვ́
Ӱ ӱ ӱӹ /ɥ/ ÿ უ́
Ф ф фӹ /f/ f
х х хӹ /x/ h
Хў хў хўӹ /ʍ/ hw
Ц ц цӹ /t͡s/ c
Ч ч чӹ /c͡ç/ č Used only in foreign words.
Ӵ ӵ чӹ /c͡ç/ ć
Ш ш шӹ /ʃ/ š
Ы ы ы /ɨ/ ï ი̈
Ӹ ӹ ӹ /ɯ̞/ ü ი̋ Usually written as /ɯ/ in phonetic transcriptions.
Commonly pronounced as /ɤ/ in casual conversation, /ə/ when reduced.
Ь ь єр бовал /◌ʲ/ y ი́ Used after consonants.
Ю ю ю /ju/ yu ი́უ
Я я я /ja/ ya/е ი́ა

Braille

TBA

Keyboard layout

TBA

Grammar

Syllable structure

Mokhavian's syllable structure is classed as fairly complex.

  • (C)(C)V(C)

Morphology

Mokhavian is generally an agglutinative language, there are many suffixes going into a verb, for example 'йорхелӑчкемеченой' (we wern't going to drink it), the verb can be broken down into parts 'йор-хе-лӑ-чкем-еч-ен-ой' . Each morpheme here contributes to the meaning of the verb tense or the person who has performed the verb.

Number & Articles

Mokhavian has 2 numbers; Singular and Plural

Plurality
Multisyllabic Monosyllabic
after C -aр
-ar
-ӑби
-ӑbi
after V -яр
-yar
-яби
-yabi


Mokhavian also has only a definite article

Defenitiness
Type1 Type2[a]
Sing. -(т)и
-(t)i

-ya
Plur. -тфи
-tfi
  1. Used when the word ends in an и/i

Inflection

Mokhavian has a very high count of noun cases, that being 20 (listed below), most of these being motion and location cases,

Case Name Suffix Question Words Example
Nominative - мо, рo (who, what; subject) чам (a man; subject)
Genitive -(и)с мос, рос (whose, what's) чамис (of a man)
Dative -(а)по мопо, ропо (to whom, to what/why) чамапо (to a man)
Accusative -й/иц моц, роц (whom, what; object) чамиц (a man; object)
Instrumental -(а)но моно, роно (with who, with what) чамано (with a man)
Comitative -мах момах, ромах (with whom, with what) чаммах (with a man)
Comparative -бча мобча, робча (like who, like what/how) чамбча (like a man)
Inessive -(а)ш мош, рош (in who[a],/what) чамаш (in a man)
Adessive -ка мока, рока (neer who, neer what) чамка (neer a man)
Postessive -зи мози, рози (Behind who,/what) чамзи (Behind a man)
Superessive -ма мома, рома (On top of who,/what) чамма (on top of a man)
Subessive -сен мосен, росен (Under of who,/what) чамсен (under a man)
Allative -ле моле, роле (towards who, where to) чамле (towards a man)
Ablative -сао мосао, росао, мсао (from who,/what/where) чамсао (from a man)
Lative -шу мошу, рошу (into who,/what) чамшу (into a man)
Elative -епе моепе, роепе (Out of who,/what) чамепе (out of a man)
Benefactial -й/ижба моижба, роижба (for who,/what) чамижба (for a man)
Vocative -/о,-е[b] - чаме (man/dude!)
Adjective -(а)в роав (like what-adj) чамав (manly -adj)
Adverbial -дӑл радӑл (how-adv) чамдӑл (manly -adv)
  1. In Mokhavian, to say "who has the <item>" you would literally say it as "in who is the <item>"
  2. -/o is when the word ends in a vowel, and -e when it ends in a consonant.

Mokhavian uses Comparison forms of Adjectives and Adverbs:

  • Positive - Bassic form of the word- lovely - кьемев
  • Negative - Negation of the word - "unlovely" - юкьемев
  • Comparitive - Form for comparison relative to something - lovelier - гвекьемев
  • Superlative - Form showing absolute relative to a group - loveliest - андокьемев
  • Augmentative - Form showing absolute position without a relative - ultimately happy - амӑнбокьемев

Pronouns

Mokhavian has a high number of inflected pronouns due to the number of cases it has.

  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acu. Ins. Com. Compr. Ine. Ade. Poste. Supe. Sube All. Abl. Lat. Ela. Bene. Voc. Adj. Adv.
Singular First ме мейс ми йец мено мемах менле мейш мека мези мема мепша меле месао мехк мепе мейжба - мейв мейдӑл
Second шен шес ше шейц шено шемах шенле шейш шека шези шема шепша шеле шесао шехк шепе шейжба ши! шев шедӑл
Third proximal ой ойс йо ойц ойно оймах ойнле ойш ойка ойзи ойма ойпша ойле ойсао ойхк ойпе ойжба - ойв ойдӑл
distal ая аяс айо айц аяно аямах аянле аяш аяка аязи аяма аяпша аяле аясао аяхк аяпе аяйжба - аяв аявдӑл
Plural First чен ченaс че ченно ченмах ченнле ченaш ченка чензи ченма ченпша ченле ченсао ченахк ченпе ченижба - ченав чендӑл
Second смен сменaс сме сменно сменмах сменнле сменaш сменка смензи сменма сменпша сменле сменсао сменахк сменпе сменижба сме! сменав смендӑл
Third proximal они онис нийо ониц онино онимах онинле ониш оника онизи онима онипша ониле онисао онихк онипе онийжба - онив онидӑл
distal ана анас анао анац анано анамах ананле анаш анака анази анама анапша анале анасао анахк анапе анайжба - анав анавдӑл
Self тоф тофaс то тофно тофмах тофнле тофaш тофка тофзи тофма тофпша тофле тофсао тофахк тофпе тофижба - тофав тофдӑл


Instead of using an auxiliary word for am/are/is the language instead has contracted forms of the pronouns and the word be

Past Present Future Future
in the past
-was -NEG.was -be -NEG.be -will.be -NEG.will.be -was.going.to -NEG.was.going.to
Singular First тех ютех вам ювам ўa юўa хелум юлум
Second цех юцех ци юци цўе юцўе хелуц юлуц
Third proximal ех йех ар уюр ўе юўе хелу юлу
distal
Plural First чех ючех веч ювеч ўач юлуч хелуч юхелуч
Second смех юсмех вемс ювемс сўем юлумс хелумс юхелумс
Third proximal сех юсех сер юсер ўес юўес хелус юлус
distal


The language also uses possessive sufixes, one could say my dog and another dog-my, the only diference being that using a pronoun brings more emphasis to it.

Suffix Example
Singular First -й/им кичим (my dog)
Second -й/иш кичиш (your dog - sin.)
Third Proximal -(и)йо кичийо (his/her dog)
Distal -й/ия кичия (his/her dog)
Plural First -ен кичен (our dog)
Second -(е)сен кичесен (your dog - plr)
Third Proximal -(и)йоч кичийоч (their dog)
Distal -й/ияч кичияйч (their dog)

Verbs

Tenses

Mokhavian dosen't have conjunctions, if a verb dosen't fit into the template a filler affix -и- is incerted, and in the
бод - walk

Mood Person Number Past Present Future Future
in the
past
Simple Perfect Simple Simple Perfect Simple Perfect
Indicative 1st Singular бодвади бодкфади бодва бодвани бодкфани брабодвани брабодкфани
Plural бодчади бодбчади бодча бодчани бодбчани брабодчани брабодбчани
2nd Singular бодсди боджди бодс бодсани бодждани храбодсани храбодждани
Plural бодсемди бодмзди бодсем бодсмани бодмздани храбодсмани храбодмздани
3d Singular бодиди боддади бодий бодини боддни залбодини залбоддни
Plural боднди боддинди бодни сбодно сбоддини залбодно залбоддини
Imperative All Singular бодчи бодчти
Plural бодчат бодчтат


Direction

Mokhavian has a Polypersional agreement where a verb contains both the body doing the action and the body expiriencing the action.

Prefix
Direct
Prefix
Possessive
Example
Self Singular то- тас- тобцесва (i drank myself - "i got drunk") таскьемева кич (i love my dog)
Plural тобцесча (we drank ourselves - "we got drunk") таскьемеча кичар (we love our dogs)
1st pers. Singular ме- мис- меможди (you hit me) мискьемева кич (i love my dog)
Plural че- чис- чеӄрехс (you peel us) чискьемей (he/she loves us)
2nd pers. Singular ши- сьи- шимовади (i hit you) сьикьемева ӄеда (i love your hair)
Plural мсе- сне- мсемовади (i hit you) снебцесвади брицаяр (i drank your beer)
3d pers. Singular и- из- ипсесди (you kissed him/her) изяӄжди пичар (you eat his/her food)
Plural ай- ич айпсесди (you hit them) ичяӄжди пичар (you eat their food)

Negatoin

For negation the prefix "ю(р)-" is added in singular, for example ибцесва(i drank it) and 'юрибцесва' (i didn't drank it).

Infinitive

In Mokhavian there is the infinitive prefix 'де-', for example: тодeбцесва ((me) to get drunk)

Repetitive

There is also a repetitive suffix '-чки-' which conveys the meaning that the action happened multiple times and/or is repetitive, for example: бцесчкива (i am drinking/i drink multiple times/repetitivly)

Template

basic Noun Template
Comparison Noun Plurality Possessive suffix Case suffix Definite article
basic Verb Template
Negation prefix Direction prefix Infinite prefix (Tense prefix) Stem Repetitive suffix Tense/person/number Question suffix

Synatx

Mokhavian is a pro-drop SOV-S language where possessees come before possessors, adjectives before nouns and it has postpositions.

Example of pro-drop (verbs are formed in OVS):

  • ме ше мекьева - i love you
  • шимекьева - i love you

Questions

Yes or No Questions

To form yes or no questions the suffix -(а)ка is used: for example "did i drink" - бцесвака

Interrogatives

Mokhavian English
ро
роц
what?
мо
моц
who?
рамдо how much/many
рое which
робча how
тао why
мао where
мой when

Vocabulary

Mokhavian uses a word-derivation system. By using a root, and adding some definite prefixes, suffixes and conbining words, one can derive many nouns and adjectives from the root. For example, from the root -мохш-, the following words can be derived: Мохшали (a Mokhavian person), Намохшдене (the Mokhavian language) and Амохшфети (Mokhavia/Qazhshava), also сўан (word) + ача (book/read) becomes сўаняча (dictionary).

Numerals

The Mokhavian numberal system is decimal.

Cardinal numbers

Mokhavian Lakhian Zal Tghok
1 Цех - - -
2 Кер - - -
3 Сем - - -
4 Ошт - - -
5 Боў̑г - - -
6 Лушну - - -
7 Швен - - -
8 Рор - - -
9 Цхет - - -
10 Ен - - -
11 Енцехсен - - -
12 Енкерсен - - -
13 Енсемсен - - -
14 Еноштсен - - -
15 Енбоў̑гсен - - -
20 Керен - - -
21 Керен де цех - - -
30 Семен - - -
40 Оштен - - -
50 Боў̑ген - - -
60 Лушнўен - - -
70 Швенен - - -
80 Рорен - - -
90 Цхетен - - -
100 Ошӑр - - -
101 Ошӑр де цех - - -
102 Ошӑр де кер - - -
110 Ошӑр де ен - - -
200 Керошӑр - - -
500 Боў̑гошӑр - - -
1000 Витӑш - - -
1999 Витӑш цхетшӑр
де цхетен де цхет
- - -
2000 Кервитӑш - - -
10000 Енвитӑш - - -

Ordinal numbers

In mokhavian the circumfix

Mokhavian Lakhian/Echin Zal/Saqga Tghok/Haydġa
ту-NUMBER-не --NUMBER-- --NUMBER-- --NUMBER--
  Mokhavian Lakhian/Echin Zal/Saqga Tghok/Haydġa
1st Мартане - - -
2nd Тукерне - - -
3rd Тусемне - - -
4th Туоштне - - -
5th Тубоўгане - - -

Language examples

Word examples

Category English Mokhavian
Basic expressions yes то (to)
no йо/ю (yo/yu)
hello нагчи (nagči) (informal)
нагодчи ,нагодчат (nagodči, nagodčat) (formal)
goodbye ачао (аčao) (informal)
бере лей (bere ley) (formal)
good morning ӄачўав кайто (qačwav kayto)
good afternoon ӄачўав антьеў (qačwav antyew)
good evening ӄачўав йесўа (qačwav yeswa)
ӄачўав сисо (qačwav siso)
good night йехт сисо
my name is ___ точў̑гева ___
менахий ___
ц̑гванойми ар ___
мейс ц̑гваноти ар ___
Colours black мавр (mavr)
blue лезеб (lezeb)
brown кафев (kafev)
grey тўеца (tweca)
green зӑй (zӑy)
orange оран̑гe (oranġe)
pink тўевўе (twevwe)
purple липу (lipu)
red савўе (savwe)
white тўера (twera)
yellow аӄа (aqa)

Sentance examples

English Mokhavian Gloss
Preparation, speed, precision,
these are essential when it
comes to saving lives.
Накода, рив, бар̑га,
хойр сех сагав мой
яй депой ч̑гач̑генар.
Preparation , speed, percision,
these 3p.be base-adj when
need-3s INF-save-3s life-PL