The Islamic Theocracy of Sa Hara
Motto: "لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله"
"There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Messenger"
and largest city
• Supreme Leader
• Speaker of the Parliament
|Kachar El Nachar|
• Single-Party State
• 2016 census
• Per capita
|Time zone||UTC +6|
The Theocracy of Sa Hara, also known as Sa Hara, officially the Sa Haran Islamic Theocracy, is a large, safe nation, renowned for its compulsory military service and absence of drug laws. The cynical population of 62 million Sa Harans are ruled with an iron fist by the dictatorship government, which ensures that no-one outside the party gets too rich. In their personal lives, however, citizens are relatively unoppressed; it remains to be seen whether this is because the government genuinely cares about its people, or if it hasn't gotten around to stamping out civil rights yet.
The medium-sized, corrupt, well-organized government juggles the competing demands of Spirituality, Law & Order, and Welfare. The average income tax rate is 33.9%, but much higher for the wealthy. The sizeable but sluggish Sa Haran economy, worth 1.62 trillion Dinars a year, is broadly diversified. market activity is frequent. State-owned companies are common. Average income is 26,150 Dinars and evenly distributed, with the richest citizens earning only 2.0 times as much as the poorest. Crime, especially youth-related, is totally unknown, thanks to a well-funded police force and progressive social policies in education and welfare. Sa Hara's national animal is the cheetah.
Khwarezm is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading cultural and economic center. Sa Hara is a major regional and middle power, exerting considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy through its large reserves of fossil fuels, which include the largest natural gas supply in the world and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves. Sa Hara's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the 12th-largest in the world.
People lived on the edge of Sa Hara thousands of years ago since the last ice age. Sa Hara was then a much wetter place than it is today. Over 30,000 petroglyphs of river animals such as crocodiles survive, with half found in the Tassili n'Ajjer in the southeast. Fossils of dinosaurs, including Afrovenator, Jobaria, and Ouranosaurus, have also been found here. Modern Sa Hara, though, is not lush in vegetation, except in the river valleys, at a few oases, and in the highlands, where plants such as the olive tree are found to grow. It was long believed that the region had been this way since about 1600 BCE after shifts in the planet's axis increased temperatures and decreased precipitation. However, this theory has recently been called into dispute, when samples taken from several 7 million-year-old sand deposits led scientists to reconsider the timeline for desertification.
Imperialist colonizers gradually absorbed the territories of present-day Sa Hara, starting in the late 19th century. In 1901, Xavier Coppolani took charge of the imperialist mission. Through a combination of strategic alliances with Zawiya tribes, and military pressure on the Hassane warrior nomads, he managed to extend colonial rule over Sa Hara. Trarza, Brakna and Tagant quickly submitted to treaties with the colonial power (1903–04), but the northern emirate of Adrar held out longer, aided by the anti-colonial rebellion (or jihad) of shaykh Maa al-Aynayn. Adrar was finally defeated militarily in 1912 and incorporated into the territory of Sa Hara, which had been drawn up and planned in 1904. Sa Hara was part of Colonial Africa from 1920.
Sa Hara became an independent nation in November 1960. In 1964 President Moktar Daddah, originally installed by the former Colonists, formalized Sa Hara as a single-party state with a new constitution, setting up an authoritarian presidential regime. Daddah's own party Sa Hara Akbar (SHA) became the ruling organization in a one-party system. The President justified this on the grounds that Sa Hara was not ready for western-style multi-party democracy. Under this one-party constitution, Daddah was reelected in uncontested elections in 1968, 1972, 1976 and 1980. After his death in 1983, he was succeeded by his son Ibrahim Daddah II, who had been vice-president. Daddah II was also reelected in uncontested elections in 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2004.
Daddah II was ousted in a bloodless coup on 10 July 2005. He had brought the country to near-collapse through a disastrous war to annex a neighboring southern region, framed as an attempt to create a "Greater Sa Hara". Though cautiously watched by the international community, the coup came to be generally accepted, with the military junta of General Kwame organizing elections within a promised two-year timeline. In a referendum on 26 June 2006, Sa Harans overwhelmingly (97%) approved a new constitution which limited the duration of a President's stay in office. The leader of the junta promised to abide by the referendum and relinquish power peacefully.
Sa Hara's first fully democratic presidential elections took place on 11 March 2007. The elections affected the final transfer from military to civilian rule following the military coup in 2005. This was the first time since Sa Hara gained independence in 1960 that it elected a president in a multi-candidate election. The elections were won in a second round of voting by Mohamed Al-Boekie.
The 2012 Revolution, later known as the Islamic Revolution, began with the first major demonstrations against Al-Boekie. After a year of strikes and demonstrations paralyzing the country and its economy, Al-Boekie fled the country and Ewa Rohas returned from exile in February 2012, forming a new government. After holding a referendum, in April 2012, Sa Hara officially became a Theocracy. A second referendum in December 2015 approved a theocratic constitution.
Most of Sa Hara consists of rocky hamada; ergs (large areas covered with sand dunes) form only a minor part. Many of its sand dunes reach over 180 meters (590 ft) in height. The desert landforms of Sa Hara are shaped by wind or by extremely rare rainfall and include sand dunes and dune fields or sand seas (erg), stone plateaus (hamada), gravel plains (reg), dry valleys (wadi), dry lakes (oued) and salt flats (shatt or chott).
Several deeply dissected mountains and mountain ranges, many volcanic, rise from the desert, including the Aïr Mountains, Ahaggar Mountains, Sa Haran Atlas, Tibesti Mountains, Adrar des Iforas, and the Red Sea hills. The highest peak in Sa Hara is Emi Koussi, a shield volcano in the Tibesti range.
Most of the rivers and streams in Sa Hara are seasonal or intermittent, the chief exception being the Nile River, which crosses the desert from its origins in central Africa to empty into the Mediterranean. Underground aquifers sometimes reach the surface, forming oases, including the Bahariya, Ghardaïa, Timimoun, Kufra, and Siwa. The flora of Sa Hara is highly diversified based on the bio-geographical characteristics of this vast desert. Floristically, Sa Hara has three zones based on the amount of rainfall received. The Sa Haran flora comprises around 2800 species of vascular plants. Approximately a quarter of these are endemic. About half of these species are common to the flora of the Arabian deserts.
Several species of fox live in Sa Hara, including the fennec fox, pale fox and Rüppell's fox. The addax, a large white antelope, can go nearly a year in the desert without drinking. The dorcas gazelle is a north African gazelle that can also go for a long time without water. Other notable gazelles include the rhim gazelle and dama gazelle. The Sa Haran cheetah lives in the northwest. There remain fewer than 250 mature cheetahs, which are very cautious, fleeing any human presence. The cheetah avoids the sun from April to October, seeking the shelter of shrubs such as balanites and acacias. They are unusually pale. Other animals include the monitor lizards, hyrax, sand vipers, and small populations of African wild dog, and red-necked ostrich. There are also small desert crocodiles.
The first fully democratic Presidential election since 1960 occurred on 11 March 2007. The election was the final transfer from military to civilian rule following the military coup in 2005. This was the first time the president was selected by ballot in the country's history. The election was won by Moamed Al-Boekie, who was ousted by a popular uprising in 2012 and replaced by Supreme Leader Ewa Rohas. The political system of Sa Hara is based on the 2015 Constitution and comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The Supreme Leader is responsible for the delineation and supervision of the general policies of Sa Hara. The Supreme Leader is also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations, and has sole power to declare war or peace. The heads of the judiciary, state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces and six of the twelve members of the Guardian Council are appointed by the Supreme Leader. The Assembly of Experts elects and dismisses the Supreme Leader on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem.
Personalities have long exercised an important influence in the politics of Sa Hara - the effective exercise of political power in the country depends on control over resources; perceived ability or integrity; and tribal, ethnic, family, and personal considerations. A conflict between whites, blacks, and other ethnic groups, centering on language, land tenure, and other issues, continues to pose challenges to the idea of national unity.
Ewa Rohas' behavior and health have been the subject of much speculation throughout his reign and life. He is described as having a quick-change and violent short temper; being charming, happy, and charismatic one minute and then suddenly angry, violent, and brutal the next, with little or no warning. Many have speculated that his behavior was either the result of long-term syphilis of the brain or possibly undiagnosed and untreated bipolar disorder. As the years progressed, Rohas' behavior has become more erratic, unpredictable, and outspoken. After breaking off all diplomatic relations with the outside world, Rohas declared he had defeated them. He bestowed himself the title of: "His Excellency, by the Grace of Allah, Supreme Leader of Sa Hara, General of the Armies, doctor Ewa Rohas, Protector of the Faith, Lord of All the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Seas and Conqueror of the Colonial Empires". He conferred a doctorate of law on himself from Khwarezm University.
The following individuals have been Leaders of Sa Hara since gaining independence (1960-present):
- President Moktar Daddah (1960-1983)
- President Ibrahim Daddah II (1983-2005)
- General Kwame (2005-2007)
- President Moamed Al-Boekie (2007-2012)
- Supreme Leader Ewa Rohas (2012-present)
Sa Hara's economy is petroleum-based; roughly 75% of budget revenues and 90% of export earnings come from the oil industry. It is strongly dependent on foreign workers with about 80% of those employed in the private sector being non-Sa Haran. Other challenges to the economy include halting or reversing the decline in per capita income, improving education to prepare youth for the workforce and providing them with employment, diversifying the economy, stimulating the private sector and housing construction, diminishing corruption and inequality.
In addition to petroleum and gas, Sa Hara also has a small gold mining sector in the Mahd adh Dhahab region and other mineral industries, an agricultural sector (especially in the southwest) based on dates and livestock, and a large number of temporary jobs created by the roughly two million annual ziyarat hajj pilgrims.
Sa Hara encouraged desert agriculture by providing substantial subsidies as well as consuming 300 billion cubic meters of mostly non-renewable water reserves free of charge to grow alfalfa, cereals, meat, and milk in the desert. Consuming non-renewable groundwater resulted in the loss of an estimated four-fifths of the total groundwater reserves by 2012.
Sa Hara is crossed by the Trans-Sa Hara Highway, which is now completely paved. This road is supported by the Sa Haran government to increase trade with neighboring countries. In recent years, the Sa Haran government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy.
About 20% of Sa Haras live on less than NS$1.25 per day. Slavery in Sa Hara has been called a major human rights issue, with roughly 4% of the country's population – proportionally the highest for any country – being enslaved against their will, especially enemies of the government. Additional human rights concerns in Sa Hara include female genital mutilation and child labor.
A 19th-century engraving of an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across Sa Hara. The people of Sa Hara are of various origins. Among them the Amaziɣ including the Turūq, various Arabized Amaziɣ groups such as the Hassaniya-speaking Sahrawis, whose populations include the Znaga a tribe whose name is a remnant of the pre-historic Zenaga language. Other major groups of people include the Toubou, Nubians, Zaghawa, Kanuri, Hausa, Songhai, Beja, and Fula/Fulani. Arabic dialects are the most widely spoken languages in the Sa Hara. Arabic, Berber, and its variants now regrouped under the term Amazigh (which includes the Guanche language spoken by the original Berber inhabitants) and Beja languages are part of the Afro-Asiatic or Hamito-Semitic family. The legacy of the colonial era administration is primarily manifested in the territorial reorganization, which engendered artificial political divisions within a hitherto isolated and porous region. Diplomacy with local clients was primarily conducted in Arabic, which was the traditional language of bureaucratic affairs. Mediation of disputes and inter-agency communication was served by interpreters contracted by the government, contributing much to preserving indigenous cultural identities in the region.
Islam is practiced by 97% of the country's population. The majority of the Muslims in Sa Hara adhere to Sufi laws and traditions. Article 15 of the 1964 constitution protected the rights of citizens to practice any religion that they choose. However in 2015, international press reported that Sa Hara was declared to be an Islamic state by the country's Supreme Leader Ewa Rohas. The Constitutional Charter of 2015 declares Islam the state religion and sharia the law of the land. Virtually all commercial life in Sa Hara comes to a standstill during major Muslim holidays, including Eid al-Adha and Eid ul-Fitr. The most significant divisions occur along the lines of the Sufi brotherhoods. The Christian community represents about 3% of the population, mostly residing in the western parts of Sa Hara which border Afropa. Most of the Christian community identify themselves as Tacolic. However, smaller Christian groups are present.
Sa Haran culture melds the behaviors, practices, and beliefs of about 578 ethnic groups, communicating in different languages, in a regional microcosm, with geographic extremes varying from sandy desert to tropical forest. Recent evidence suggests that while most citizens of the country identify strongly with both Sa Hara and their religion, Arab and African supranational identities are much more polarising and contested.
The cuisine of Sa Hara been influenced by Arab and African peoples who have lived in and traversed the "stark" landscape marked with desert dunes in caravans. There is an overlap with neighboring cuisines. Colonial influence (Sa Hara was a colony until 1960) has also played a role in influencing the cuisine of the relatively isolated land. Alcohol is prohibited in the Muslim faith and its sale is largely limited to hotels. Mint tea is widely consumed and poured from a height to create foam. Traditionally, meals are eaten communally.
The music of Sa Hara comes predominantly from the country's largest ethnic group: the Moors. In Moorish society, musicians occupy the lowest caste, iggawin. Musicians from this caste used song to praise successful warriors as well as their patrons. Iggawin also had the traditional role of messengers, spreading news between villages. In modern Sa Hara, professional musicians are paid by anybody to perform; affluent patrons sometimes record the entertainment, rather than the musicians themselves, and are then considered to own the recording.
The flag of Sa Hara was introduced in 1960 under the instructions of Moktar Daddah. The colors green and gold are considered Pan-African colors. Green is also used to symbolize Islam and the gold for the sands of the desert. The crescent and star are symbols of Islam, which is the major religion in the nation. Some writers have also speculated that green symbolizes a bright future, and growth. There is no official specification or construction sheet for the exact relative measurements of the star and crescent, although the flag's measurements are 2:3.