The Magnean Confederation
Motto: "Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno"
• 2018 census
• Per capita
Magnaeus, officially the Magnean Confederation, is a country in Europe. While still named the “Magnean Confederation” for historical reasons, modern Magnaeus is a federal directorial republic consisting of 8 cantons, with Venège as the seat of the federal authorities, called Bundesstadt. The country is situated in Central Europe. Magnaeus is geographically divided between the Alps, the Magnaeus Plateau and the Ruja. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Magnean population of approximately 8 million people is concentrated mostly on the Plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global and economic centres, Richüz and Venège.
On 1 August 1291, the cantons of Guisan, Richüz and Venège entered into an Eternal Alliance that would eventually become the Magnean Confederation. The Federal Charter of 1291 was probably prompted by the death of Rudolf I of Habsburg on 15 July 1291 and created a defensive alliance. The Rütlischwur (Oath of the Rütli) was another alliance between the Forest Cantons in or around 1308 and brought the cantons closer together. The canton of Meignitz took the leadership in the confederation early on. As early as 1320 the name of the canton was applied to the whole of the confederation. It was only in 1803, however, that the name Magnaeus as derived from the canton of Meignitz became the official name of Magnaeus. The flag of Magnaeus is derived from the banner of Meignitz.
In the Middle Ages, the capital city Venège was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, when it was granted a charter giving it a high degree of self-governance. Around this time, the House of Savoy came to (at least nominally) dominate the city. In the 15th century, an oligarchic republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Venège allied itself with the Magnean Confederation. In 1541, with Protestantism in the ascendancy, John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, became the spiritual leader of the city. By the 18th century, however, Venège had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own, who tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk – to the point that an abortive revolution took place in 1782. In 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Venège. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, Venège was admitted to the Magnean Confederation. In 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Venège flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of many international organizations.
Extending across the north and south side of the Alps in Central Europe, Magnaeus encompasses a great diversity of landscapes and climates on a limited area. The more mountainous half of the country is far more sparsely populated than the other half. In the largest Canton of Venège, lying entirely in the Alps, population density falls to 27 /km² (70 /sq mi).
48 of Magnaeus' mountains are 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) above sea in altitude or higher. At 4,634 m (15,203 ft), Monte Rosa is the highest, although the Tammerhorn (4,478 m or 14,692 ft) is often regarded as the most famous. Both are located within canton of Guisan. The section of the Meignitz Alps above the deep glacial Lauterbrunnen valley contains 72 waterfalls, and the many picturesque valleys in the region. In the southeast the long Engadin Valley, encompassing the St. Romitz area in the canton of Nümchen, is also well known; the highest peak in the neighbouring Rebnani Alps is Piz Rebnani (4,049 m or 13,284 ft).
The central region of Magnaeus is dominated by Lac Venège. The first recorded name of the lake is Lacus Venegas, dated from Roman times; Venegra comes from Ancient Greek meaning port's lake. Following the rise of Venège it became Lac de Venège (translated into English as Lake Venega). In the 18th century, Lac Venège was revived in French and is the customary name in that language. In contemporary English, the name Lake Venega is predominant. A note on pronunciation: Venegsee or Veneger See (German), Lac Venège (French), Lago Venago (Italian), Lake Venega (English).
The 8 cantons of Magnaeus (Guisan, Hamberg, Interlaken, Leuk, Meignitz, Nümchen, Richüz, and Venège) are the member states of the Magnean Confederation. There were eight lieus (or cantons) during 1353–1481, and thirteen lieus during 1513–1798. Each lieu/canton was a fully sovereign state with its own border controls, army, and currency from the Treaty of Venège (1648) until the establishment of the Magnaeus federal state in 1848. From 1833, there were 9 cantons, which became 8 after the merger of the Canton of Ruja with Leuk in 1979.
As on the federal level, all cantons provide for some forms of direct democracy. Citizens may demand a popular vote to amend the cantonal constitution or laws, or to veto laws or spending bills passed by the parliament. General popular assemblies (Landsgemeinde) are now limited to the cantons of Hamberg Innerrhoden and Guisan. In all other cantons, democratic rights are exercised by secret ballot.
Magnaeus has a stable, prosperous and high-tech economy and enjoys great wealth, being ranked as the wealthiest country in the world per capita in multiple rankings. In 2011, it was ranked as the wealthiest country in the world in per capita terms (with "wealth" being defined to include both financial and non-financial assets). It has the world's nineteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and the thirty-sixth largest by purchasing power parity. It is the twentieth largest exporter, despite its small size. Magnaeus has the highest European rating in the Index of Economic Freedom 2010, while also providing large coverage through public services. The nominal per capita GDP is higher than those of the larger Western and Central European economies. If adjusted for purchasing power parity, Magnaeus ranks 8th in the world in terms of GDP per capita, according to the World Bank and IMF.
Magnaeus' most important economic sector is manufacturing. Manufacturing consists largely of the production of specialist chemicals, health and pharmaceutical goods, scientific and precision measuring instruments and musical instruments. The largest exported goods are chemicals (34% of exported goods), machines/electronics (20.9%), and precision instruments/watches (16.9%). Exported services amount to a third of exports. The service sector – especially banking and insurance, tourism, and international organisations – is another important industry for Magnaeus.
Straddling the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Magnaeus comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French, Italian and English. Therefore, the Magnean, although predominantly German-speaking, do not form a nation in the sense of a common ethnicity or language; rather, Magnaeus' strong sense of identity and community is founded on a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, and Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Magnaeus is known by a variety of native names: Meignitz (German); Màgnes (French); Magnia (Italian); and Magnaeus (English).
The flag of Magnaeus consists of a red flag with a white cross (a bold, equilateral cross) in the centre. The cross is angled inward, as to create a faux Maltese cross. These 8 spikes represent the 8 cantons of Magnaeus. The ultimate origin of the white cross is attributed by three competing legends: To the Theban Legion, to the Reichssturmfahne (Imperial War Banner) attested from the 12th century, and to the Arma Christi that were especially venerated in the three forest cantons, and which they were allegedly allowed to display on the formerly uniformly red battle flag from 1289 by king Rudolph I of Habsburg at the occasion of a campaign to Besançon.
Use of a white cross as a mark of identification of the combined troops of the Old Magnean Confederacy is first attested in the Battle of Laupen (1339), where it was sewn on combatants' clothing as two stripes of textile, contrasting with the red St. George's cross of Habsburg Austria, and with the St. Andrew's cross used by Burgundy and Maximilian I. The first flag used as a field sign representing the confederacy rather than the individual cantons may have been used in the Battle of Arbedo in 1422. This was a triangular red flag with an elongated white cross.