Tikva

The State of Tikva

מדינת תקווה
Государство Тиква
Flag of Tikva
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Motto: "May the Light Shine Forever"
Tikva map.png
StatusIndependent State
CapitalAyalon
Largest cityHarel
Official languagesYebru
Recognised national languagesAluxian, Anglish
Religion
Juddism
Demonym(s)Juddean
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Adar Rivkin
• Prime Minister
Liora Shapiro
LegislatureKnesset
Establishment
• Formation
1950
Population
• 2018 census
14,511,371
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
$564.88 billion
• Per capita
$38,927
CurrencyShekel (TNS)
Time zoneUTC -4
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+979
Internet TLD.tk

The State of Tikva (Yerbu: מדינת תקווה) is a sovereign country located on the continent of Alharu along the shores of the Verde Sea. The country contains a diversity of geographic features within its borders. The city of Harel is the nation's economic and technological center while its seat of government is located in inland in the hills surrounding Ayalon. Tikva has been inhabited by the Palladines for centuries with the Juddish people only arriving in large numbers starting in the late 19th century. There has been a long-term dispute between the people of Tikva and the neighboring Palladines over the sovereignty of the vitally strategic and fertile Samarran Valley which Tikva has unofficially deemed its sovereign territory. Successive governments have built settlements within this politically sensitive area and tensions between the two people are accelerating to a point where conflict may be unavoidable. The nation's name is derived from the Anglish translation of the Yerbu word for hope.

History

The Juddish people have a very long history, first records indicate they originated from land near the edge of the western steppes of Europa. There they had slowly grown in size over the generations until their original homeland was devasted by tribes from the steppes, culminating with the destruction of the Great Sakak in the late 1200s. The Juddish people had little choice but to flee. For the next three-hundred and fifty years, the Juddish people would spread out across Europa, practicing their faith wherever they went, but they would experience considerable discrimination and persecution by many Europan peoples. Naval technology improved during the 1600 and over much of the 1700's, enabling Juddish people of stripes to see what awaited them across the Adlantic Ocean. Millions over time would make this transadlantic voyage, settling in countries like Ahrana, Aluxia, Rusland, and Serbya. However, while these nations were welcoming at first, but soon, the same story of pain and suffering returned. Throughout the late 1700's through the mid-1800s, Juddish people were subjected to wide-scale discrimination; and in some countries, pogroms including Aluxia and Serbya. During the 1740s, hundreds of thousands of Juddish people who were living in Iverica were evicted. Many went to the south to the continent of Alharu, but a small group settled in what is known as Palladine. The conflict between the new arrivals and the Palladines was not at all existent but over time, tensions would rise.

The desire for a safe homeland, away from the hatred and anti-semitism towards the Juddish people, had become a burning topic of discussion following the 1862 Pogrom of Chukba in Aluxia. Asher Katz, born in Gradin, Aluxia, published a book advocating for the establishing a national homeland for the Juddish people in 1870. He was subsequently revered as one of the founding fathers of the modern State of Tikva, despite passing away many years prior to its inception. Katz pondered the feasibility of a number of geographic locations but gave the strongest case for Palladine due to the already present, and at the time, the largest concentration of Juddish people outside of the persecuting countries. His writings began to serve as an inspiration for many Juddish hoping to flee persecution, he, along with other prominent proponents of a Juddish-majority homeland, including Viktor Kaganovich and Vladimir Sokolnikov, established the Katzist League of Aluxia in 1877. The organization grew to encompass a wide variety of groups, including socialists, labor Katzists, and religious Katzists, and became the leading voice for an Juddish-majority state upon its inception.

The first wave of modern Juddish migration to Palladine, known as the First Aliyah, begin in 1881, as Juddish people fled from more pogroms from Eastern Argis. Katz passed away in 1887 and his vision was transformed into Katzist Nationalism by fellow League member Dagon Chertok in 1898. The basis of Chertok's movement sought to establish a Juddish state in the land of Tikva (Palladine), thus offering a solution to the Juddish question that many countries had been trying to answer for many years. The World Katzist League was formed the same year out of the Aluxite origins. The Second Ailyah started at the turn of the 20th century, beginning after the Nezan pogrom that resulted in the death of over 45,000 people. Both aliyahs to this point had predominantly consisted of individuals adhering to Dati (orthodox) Juddism. The second wave also included socialists who would establish the kibbutz movement (which today play an important role in the agricultural sector of the economy). The cities of Harel (which was the first city the World Katzist League planned and funded), Adora, and Katzilya were also founded during this time. The Third and Fourth Ailyahs were due to tensions that had been building in Argis in the years leading up to the First Argic War where an additional 3 million Juddish people migrated to Palladine from a range of countries. The Hagan, the largest of the dozens of paramilitaries (and allied with the Katzist League), was formed to defense Juddish communities in Palladine both from their neighbors and potential hostiles engaged in the concurrent Argic War. By the beginning of 1948, the Juddish people of Tikva occupy nearly 46 percent of the land, including the entirety of the rich Sharon Plain. Tensions between the Palladines and the Juddish of Tikva reached a critical mass as the Palladines were pushed further and further inland by the constantly arriving Juddish. War broke out between them and the Palladines in 1949.

The War for Independence lasted roughly 14 months between Palladine and Juddish paramilitaries fighting for control. Thousands on both sides would lose their lives in the conflict but in the end, the Palladines were vastly underresourced by their richer and better-armed opponent. Several Argic powers had gotten involved in the War of Independence by providing funding and weapons, but in the end, the bloodshed was too much for both sides. A ceasefire was established in 1950 and the "Green Line" was established, demarcating each people's land. Tikva's then-capital, Harel, was moved to the new capital, Ayalon, which was located a short distance from the Valley. The fertile and militarily-vital Samarran Valley was largely left to the Palladines in the compromise but this would end up being a ticking time bomb between the two peoples as another conflict was inevitable. Tikva formally declared statehood in 1950.

Due to the Katzist movements aligned with the numerous socialist efforts around the world, Tikva would remain a center-left country for several decades, led by the Avoda Party. With the massive influx of migrants caused by the First Argic War, the resources of the young state were stretched to their limits and strict austerity measures were put in place to conserve resources. Many had come with no possessions at all and housing projects had to be quickly constructed, leading to the establishment of many new municipalities including Orun and Yuval. The first two socialist governments ordered that all "public displays" of religion, such as the wearing of religious garments, were outright prohibited in the country, causing tension between the government and the country's growing Orthodox population. These restrictions were lifted by the third Government. By 1961, eleven years after the founding of the State, the austerity measures put in place were largely lifted and the economy began to ramp up. The 1960s also saw a major influx in Alhardim and Ibharim migrate to Tikva.

As the Second Argic War starting in 1968, the Palladines decided it would be an opportune time to attempt to push back the Juddish people and launched the 9-Day War, which was sprung during the High Holy Days. Tikva thoroughly beat the Palladine militias, pushing them both out of Tikva proper but also captured a third of the Samarran Valley, across the 1950-established Green Line. This left the Government at the time with a choice: release it or hold onto it. The highest-ranking official in the DFT urged the Prime Minister and his Security Cabinet to formally occupy what was in their possession at the time. There was a considerable international backlash. In the further aftermath of the 1968 war, Avoda, which had always controlled the Government with like-minded coalition partners were defeated by the rapidly rising Herut Party, made up of major right-wing politicians who urged for settling Samarra and eventually, outright annex it into the State. The right-wing Governments of the 1970s and 1980s saw the economy to further expand by leaps and bounds and several Prime Ministers had pushed a policy of aggressive settlement construction. Many more Serbyan and Aluxian Juddish people, fleeing oppression by their respective leaders at the time, migrated in droves in the late 1980s. By 1990, over 4 million Juddish people resided in settlements of all sizes within the Samarran Valley. Equally as impressively, Aluxia's own population had gone down by nearly 16 percent over most of the century due to numerous migrations of Juddish people moving to Tikva.

The left-wing parties came together in 1992 under a unified list to form a coalition government. There was a major desire to cooperate with the Palladines and find a solution to the ongoing Samarran Valley question. The Palladine Authority was established in 1994 to serve as the unified representative body of their people and act as the primary group to engage in deliberations with the Government in Ayalon. Talks were to happen in early 1995 but then-Prime Minister Omet Merton was assassinated by anti-Juddish Palladines while he was touring Palladine areas of the Valley. In response to the assassination, the left-wing government collapsed and the right-wing returned to power, vowing revenge. Another armed conflict was fought via a series of skirmishes over the next five years, ending in 2000. Another round of talks was attempted but largely fell apart. The right-wing parties have controlled the country since then, with more orthodox, and ultraorthodox-leaning parties getting even bolder in politics, making the nation's political stability a fragile balancing act. Their governments over the past eighteen years have pushed for ever greater settlement construction and economic development in the Samarran Valley, raising tensions with the Palladines. In the last three years, the Authority has threatened action if these acts do not cease immediately and that Tikva approves the terms former Prime Minister Merton offered in 1995. Prime Minister Lasker of Herut continued such settlement projects to keep his coalition intact. In mid-2019, Lasker was defeated at the polls by the Katzist List led by Liora Shapiro in a snap election called by Lasker who believed he had public support for annexation of the Samarran Valley.

Geography

The lands of Tikva are diverse: from the warm shores of the Verde Sea to the cooler hills surrounding the capital and the Galon Mountains. Tikva's area is approximately (enter value)km2. Tikva is bordered by Cashar to the southwest. The country lies between 26.2 degrees and 33.4 degrees north longitude and 102.4 degrees and 99.9 degrees west latitude. The highest point is Mount Kammon, the lowest point being sea level at Harel.

Climate

TBD based on map placement.

Cities

There are four major urban population centers: the Gush Dor (Harel metropolitan area), the Ayalon metropolitan area, the Adora metropolitan area, and the Darom metropolitan area. Tikva's largest municipality, by population, is Harel (enter population value), followed by Ayalon, Adora, and Darom propers. The State has 13 cities with a population of over 100,000. Any community that is above 20,000 is awarded municipal status by the Ministry of Interior. There are several settlements within the Samarran Valley including Tzion, Natan, Lahav, Gadot, Mevo, Matan, Odem, Regba, and Giva'in.

2018 Rank City District 2018 Estimate
1. Harel to be determined 12,876,866
2. Ayalon to be determined 6,688,927
3. Adora to be determined 5,567,097
4. Darom to be determined
5. Tze'elim to be determined 2,501,576
6. Yir'on to be determined 1,365,899
7. Ben Yam to be determined 1,194,094
8. Atida to be determined 1,077,681
9. Katzilya to be determined 1,077,681
10. Yuval to be determined 1,077,687
11. Orun to be determined 1,077,687
12. Beit She'an to be determined 1,077,687
13. Hevron to be determined 1,077,687

Government

The structure of government of Tikva is a unitary parliamentary republic - led by a President who holds primarily ceremonial responsibilities and specific powers as defined in the Basic Laws. Overall executive power is vested in the Prime Minister who is ceremonially appointed by the President upon the recommendation of party representatives in the Knesset and makes foreign and domestic policy decisions which are voted on by the cabinet. The cabinet is composed of ministers, who mostly head the various departments of the Government, though some are ministers without portfolio. The cabinet ministers are appointed by the Prime Minister and confirmed by the legislature. From amongst the cabinet, a small number, alongside the Prime Minister, serve on the Security Cabinet - which forms foreign and defense policy.

The Knesset is Tikva's unicameral legislature and is seated in Ayalon. It is comprised of 120 members, elected to 4-year terms through party-list proportional representation as stated in the Basic Laws. Seats within the Knesset are allocated amongst the parties using the D'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. The various parties select their candidate slates using a closed list. Thus, voters select the party of their choice, rather than the specific candidate. A party must achieve at 3.25% of the national vote in order to be allocated a seat in the Knesset. All citizens of the State over the age of 18 may participate in legislative elections, conducted through secret ballot. As the Knesset is the legislative branch of government, it has the power to enact and repeal all laws and enjoys de jure parliamentary supremacy, as it can pass any law by a simple majority, even if it conflicts with a Basic Law. The Knesset oversees the Government through committees, nominates the Prime Minister, and confirms his cabinet ministers. Members of the Knesset elect (and remove) the President, along with the power to dissolve itself and call for new elections. Since the nation's founding, governments have always compromised coalitions of parties to pass the threshold required.

The judicial branch is an independent branch of the government including secular and religious courts. The Supreme Court of Tikva is the highest in the land; below them include District and Magistrate courts. While most legal cases go through the secular system, certain matters must go through Religious Zokuk courts: for matters such as marriage, divorce, mutrut, sabbat, conversion, and adoption are solely possessed by these courts. The Chief Zokuk Authority supervises the religious courts of the nation's Juddish inhabitants.

There are three forms of local government in Tikva: city councils, local councils, and regional councils. City councils govern municipalities classified as cities, local councils govern small municipalities, and regional councils govern groups of communities. These bodies look after public services such as urban planning, zoning, the provision of water, emergency services, and education and culture, as per guidelines of the Ministry of Interior. Local governments consist of a governing council chaired by a mayor. The mayor and all council members are chosen in municipal elections.

The Ministry of Defense has responsibility for the administration of the Samarran territories.

Foreign Relations

The State of Tikva is a recognized sovereign nation by most nations on Eurth. It maintains full relations and open borders with its southwestern neighbor, Cashar. Tikva is a member of the UEL and other international organizations. Due to the various backgrounds of where Juddish people have hailed from over the generations, Tikva operates mutual embassies in nations in which there are large Juddish populations including  Aluxia,  Ahrana,  Limonaia,  Ahrana, and  Iverica. Beyond these, Tikva has diplomatic operations in the Tagmatium Tagmatine Empire,  Gallambria, and  Sunset Sea Islands. The State is an observer status of ATARA and numerous other international organizations. The Government has identified that further diplomatic relations with  Fulgistan and  Kipan are critical to long-term foreign policy.

Military and Law Enforcement

The Defense Forces of Tikva (also known as Tzahal) is responsible for ensuring the sovereign integrity of Tikva and the safety of her people. They consist of the ground forces, air force, and navy. It is the sole military wing of the security forces and has only civilian jurisdiction within the Samarran Valley. The Tzahal is headed by the Ramatkal, who is subordinate to the Minister of Defense, General Arion Sarkin. The DFT is the legal successor of five paramilitaries set up during the late 1930s when the Juddish people were fighting to secure Tikva in a range of skirmishes with the native Palladines. Conscription is mandatory for all Juddish people of Tikva for 3 years - both men and woman serve in the forces. The Defense Forces concentrate their activities in the border regions, particularly those in range of and within the Samarran Valley.

Tikva's intelligence agency is called Shai. The entity had been part of the largest paramilitary organization that participated in the war for statehood in the mid-1940s. It is charged with protecting the State both internally and externally. The Director of the Shai reports directly to the Prime Minister and his Security Cabinet. Details on operations carried out by agents of the Shai are heavily classified.

While the DFT is protecting the nation from external threats, the National Police is charged with crime fighting, traffic control, maintaining public safety, and counter-terrorism in coordination with the intelligence community. The Police operates throughout the country and areas of the Samarran Valley occupied by the State. The Magav (Border Police) and Yasam (Riot/Hostage situations) are two special branches of the service. The headquarters of the Police is located in a district of Ayalon. In an emergency, the police can be reached by dialing 100 from any telephone within Tikva.

Economy

The economy of Tikva is highly developed and enjoys a higher standard of living when compared to other countries. The country's major economic sectors are high-technology, pharmaceuticals, financial services, textiles, citrus fruits, cotton, and industrial manufacturing. The territory itself is relatively poor in natural resources, forcing the nation to depend on imports of oil, raw materials, wheat, consumer goods, and motor vehicles. Tikva can produce nearly 40 percent of its foodstuffs and could be self-sufficient if the entire Samarran Valley were to be brought into the State. The nation's investment in university education is considered to be the key to developing Tikva's high-technology boom.

Energy

Most energy comes from hydrocarbon fuels in the form of coal or natural gas. Tikva relies heavily on imports to meet its energy needs, however, there are serious deliberations underway to move the State away from such sources and embrace wide-scale renewable energy in the form of solar generation. As per law, all homes must have solar water heaters installed which are estimated to have reduced the nation's need for hydrocarbon generation by 4 percent. The Ministry of Energy intends on working with Soreana and Prymont on installing enough solar generators to meet 25 percent of the nation's energy demand in the short run. Successive governments since 2010 have always pledged to conserve the nation's environment by curtailing hydrocarbon emissions and power generation.

Transport

Mobility in Tikva is predominately done by private motor vehicles and a constantly expanding rail network operated by the State. Demands of population growth, political factors, the Defense Forces, tourism and increased traffic set the pace for infrastructure investment.

100 percent of all roads within Tikva proper are paved while 72 percent are paved in territories occupied in the Samarran Valley. There six major motorways, two of which are tolled through the use of an electronic collection system.

Though 62 percent of all personal transport is done by using private cars, public transport has received higher attention from recent Governments through targeted investments. Buses are the country's main form of public transport, with Egged providing 45% of all public transport trips in the country. The company is up against a challenge from Variot-owned FlexBus which is aggressively seeking to gain market share. All bus operators are privately operated. Harel's Central Bus Station is the second-largest in the entire world. Ayalon, Harel, and Adora each have bus rapid transit as part of its transport mix. Competing with the bus routes are private minicabs and taxis. Both Harel and Ayalon are in the process of building extensive tram networks.

The Ministry of Transportation has been delegating more of its capital budget into expanding the rail network, much of which was built by foreign companies who came to Palladine in search of natural wealth. Rakevet Tikva is the state-owned operator which is subordinate to the Ministry. Rail service operates from Yuval in the north to Darom in the south via the densely-populated Gush Dor metropolitan area that includes Harel, Adora, and Katzilya. Service is also available inland to Ayalon (with a stop at the nation's major international airport), Beit She'an, and Orun along the coastal line. There are ongoing conversations inside the Ministry concerning the upgrading of the rail lines between Ayalon, Harel, and Katzilya for high-speed service.

Tikva's major aviation gateway is Harel-Aron Katz International Airport, hub to the national airline, El Al. Given its location, individuals can travel to many major cities on Eurth from here.

The most important seaport in the country is Orun.

Demographics

Ethnocultural Divisions

Tikva defines itself as a Juddish state, often referred to as the state of the Juddish people. The nation's Law of Priority grants any Juddish or anyone with Juddish ancestry the right of abode and eventual citizenship. Anyone with at least a single Juddish grandparent is eligible. The State of Tikva has, since its inception, categorized individuals as either Juddish or non-Juddish.

According to the nation's Central Bureau of Statistics, of Tikva's 14.51 million people, 88.2 percent were Juddish of any background. Among them, 79.4 percent were Sabras (born in Tikva), mostly second- or third-generation, and the rest are olim (Juddish immigrants to Tikva). Most Juddish immigrants originate from Argic states including Ahrana, Aluxia, Rusland, and Serbya (these peoples are referred to as Argenazi). A significant portion of this community, particularly recent immigrants, still associate with the culture and language of their country of origin, with some having struggled to integrate into larger society. There are areas of the country where it is entirely possible to survive knowing only Aluxian for example, such as some municipalities outside Harel or Ayalon. Many of these immigrants have an insufficient understanding of the Yerbu language. A small percentage of olim come from Alharun countries including Limonaia and Soreana; while an even smaller percentage hail from Iverica. These populations are known as Alhardim and Ibharim respectively. These Juddish peoples comprise roughly a fifth of Tikva's population, and they've had a major impact on society and culture by introducing new influences and viewpoints. Juddish intermarriage rates run at over 35% and recent studies suggest that the percentage of individuals descended from more than one group increases by 0.5 percent every year, with over 25% of school children now originating from more than one community.

Non-Juddish people make up 11.8 percent of Tikva's population and the largest group are ethnic Palladines.

Language

Yebru, a language with origins from central Europa, is the sole official language of the State of Tikva. The country does, however, recognize both Anglish and Aluxian as national languages, granting both languages a particular legal status. All road signs throughout the country must legally be written in the three languages, and it is permitted for Senators to use either of the national languages when delivering speeches in the Knesset. All schools must teach entirely in Yebru and teach an additional national language as part of the curriculum; Anglish has recently replaced Aluxian as the language of choice in most schools. According to the 2011 census, Yebru is the most widely spoken language at home, at 53.3 percentage of the total population. Aluxian is spoken daily by 29.1 percent of the population; Palladin at 10.4 percent; and 7.2 percent by other languages, including Anglish. A survey conducted by the Ayalon Observer found that 88.5 percent of the country's population can fluently speak Yebru, with 8.1 percent being able to speak it to an extent and the remaining 3.4 percent having very little working knowledge of the language.

Religion

Tikva is officially both "democratic and Juddish", though this is interpreted as being a nation-state of the Juddish people, as opposed to a state founded and based on religious doctrine. Still, the state is not secular and has even gone as far as incorporating elements of the Juddish faith in the very structure of government in the country. The Chief Zokuk Authority has complete control over issues such as marriage, divorce, and conversion for the country's Juddish population, and it is the sole body that possesses the power to grant mutrut certification to establishments across the country. All food at army bases and in cafeterias of government buildings has to be Mutar even though the majority of citizens do not follow these dietary laws. The system was put in place following the collapse of the Hotovely premiership as a compromise to garner support amongst the country's religious community.

Juddism is the largest religion in Tikva; the state identifies 88.2 percent of citizens as Juddish. The faith - which is commonly referred to as a distant branch of a (Not-Semitic) religion, is dominant only in Tikva, making it the sole Juddish-majority nation. The country's Juddish population be further divided into the following religious characteristics: 39.5 percent self-identify as Hiloni (secular), 33.1 percent as reform, 15.2 percent as Masorti (traditional), and 12.2 percent as Dati (orthodox). Due to the community's high birth rate, it is been estimated that the Dati community will comprise over a quarter of the country's total population by 2030, which experts believe will negatively affect the country's economy. Secular citizens identify as Juddish because they serve in the Defense Forces, they celebrate Juddish holidays (usually not in strict conformity with Zokuk Law), and speak Yebru. Although the term 'Orthodox' covers a broad spectrum of beliefs, Orthodox people live their lives in accordance with religious doctrine, albeit to varying extents. Approximately 60% of those who identify as orthodox claim to be traditional-orthodox and believe that secular Katzist nationalism and Juddism are compatible and can successfully coexist in the country. The remaining 40% identify as ultraorthodox and live in isolation - far from the temptations of the state's dominant culture, which is secular and somewhat liberal. Ultraorthodox communities thus choose to live cities like Beit She'an, and in ghettos in many of the country's main cities, such as Mea Sharif in Ayalon.

11.8 percent of the country's total population follow other religions including (enter information), at 7.3 percent, (a Semitic religion), is the country's largest religious minority. The community is comprised of ethnic (enter) - often economic migrants - as well as ethnic Palladines, living primarily in the Samarran Valley, a disputed territory claimed by both Tikva and native Palladines.

Society and Culture

Cuisine

The nation's cuisine includes local dishes as well as typical Juddish dishes brought to the country by immigrants from the diaspora. Many dishes are thus influenced by the cuisine of places such as Aluxia, Iverica, and Limonaia. Since the establishment of the State, distinct fusion cuisine has developed and has even spread to other parts of the world, particularly in areas where Juddish people are present. Food in Tikva has recently adopted and continues to embrace, elements of Eastern cuisine - that is, the foods and ingredients associated with the Near East, and the Juddish communities found there, in particular - such as falafel, hummus, shakshouka, couscous, and za'atar. Argic-originating cuisine dominated the national palette prior to the arrival of millions of Eastern immigrants in the early 60s and is still popular across the country.

Approximately 40% of Tikva's Juddish population claim to follow mutar at home. Restaurants with mutrut certification are found throughout the country, though were somewhat rare prior to the '60s. Despite such growth, only 25% of total restaurants in the country have mutrut certification, perhaps reflecting the largely secular values of those who dine out. Only the Chief Zokuk Authority possesses the power to grant certification and the process is rather costly. The consumption of products containing fish is rare throughout the country, even in secular strongholds such as the Gush Dor, albeit to a less extent than in the rest of the country. Vegetarianism and veganism are emerging trends in the country, particularly in the predominantly secular coastal cities. It is estimated that 1 in 5 citizens are either vegetarian or vegan, with the figure in the Gush Dor being roughly double, at 2 in 5. There is thus an emerging market for foods suitable for vegetarians and vegans in the country as the trend becomes more and more popular and widespread.

Music and Dance

Tikva is home to a wide variety of music styles and the music scene contains influences from throughout the world, owed primarily to the immigration of Juddish people from all corners of Eurth. Until the arrival of around two million Juddish people from Alharu in the 1960s, musical styles from Aluxia and other Argic countries dominated and had the greatest impact on the music scene, so much in fact that songs in the Aluxian language were almost as common as those in Yerbu. The newcomers, who often resented anything related to Argis and its culture, including the Argic languages, introduced new musical styles and influences, favoring instead a distinct musical identity centered around the Yerbu language and themes such as the struggles the Juddish people have been subjected to throughout history. Music in Tikva experienced a major shift in regards to styles and influences in the '60s, as a result of the arrival of millions of Juddish people from the Alharu. The new style that developed - known as Alhardim - combines styles from Northern Alharu and sung in almost always in Yerbu, though may include verses in other languages. Although initially associated with only the communities of predominant Alharu origin, the styles have grown to become one of the most widespread styles in the country in recent years. Classical music in Tikva has been vibrant since the 1930s, before the State existed. The contemporary music scene in Tikva spans the spectrum of musical genres and often fuses many musical influences, ranging from soul, rock, jazz, hip-hop, electronic, pop, and mainstream.

The nation's canonical folk songs, known as "Songs of the Land of Tikva," deal with the experiences of the pioneers in building the new Juddish homeland. The Hora circle dance introduced by early Juddish settlers was originally popular in the moshavim and outlying communities. It became a symbol of the Katzist reconstruction and of the ability to experience joy amidst austerity. It now plays a significant role in modern folk dancing and is regularly performed at weddings and other celebrations, and in group dances throughout the country. Modern dance is a flourishing field, with cities such as Harel, Ayalon, and Adora all being home to prestigious dance schools. Ballet is considerably popular throughout the country, particularly in areas where those of former Aluxian origin reside. The Ayalon Academy of Ballet is viewed as one of the most prestigious ballet institutions in the world.

Literature

Most works classed as Tikva literature are written in the Yebru language, although some authors write in Anglish and Aluxian. The foundations of modern writing in Tikva were laid by a group of pioneers who had fled from the discrimination and regular pogroms in Aluxia and Serbya. The themes of their works centered around the pain and suffering they had experienced in their old homes and the hopes and dreams they wanted to achieve in their new homeland. By the turn of the century, the focus was entirely on Palladine, even if they were writing about other parts of the world. It was also a time in which writers wrote works to actively promote aliyah by Juddish people around the world in the years leading up to the First Argic War. Some of the most well-known writers at this time lived on the various kibbutzes that had been founded and fused their daily experiences in the community in their literature.

When Tikva became a sovereign nation in 1945 following the war of independence with the neighboring Palladines. Most writers at this time period had become Sabras (born in Tikva), rather than original olim who had been the pioneers who brought about the state's founding. Strong influences now came from other countries, including those as far away as Europa and as far south as Aurelia. Even with their new state, a feeling of emptiness and of a search for new values was leading to experiments in exploring the Juddish past. As more and more Argic-originating olim began arriving in Tikva in the 1960s, literature focused on placing the land's culture within a world context and stressed less on the unique aspect of Juddish life - authors during this time often identify themselves with the protest literature of other countries. Today's writers continue to develop new techniques and styles but many have returned to examining the basic questions of Juddish existence by exposing the collective tensions in individual character and fates.

Sport

Association football is by far the most popular spectator sport in the country, closely followed by rugby and then basketball. Liga Alef is the country's premier football league and the largest clubs in the country include Beitar Katzilya, Maccabi Ayalon, Hapoel Ayalon, F.C. Harel, and Maccabi Yuval. Whilst the national team has repeatedly failed to qualify for the UENA World Cup, Beitar Katzilya and Maccabi Ayalon - the country's largest two teams - have enjoyed some international success, qualifying for various continental competitions. Football rivalry has in recent years become an issue for security forces, especially the associated hooliganism. Riots frequently break out between supporters of opposing teams, particularly when Beitar Adora and Maccabi Ayalon are playing. Basketball is the sport in which the country has achieved its greatest international success, having won the Alharun championship four times. Maccabi Yuval, representing Yuval in Gush Dor, is the country's top basketball team and has been the champion for twenty consecutive years. Other teams that have had considerable success include Maccabi Ayalon and Maccabi Darom. The Premier Rugby League is the country's premier rugby union league, which has become more popular in the last twenty years. The sport is particularly popular amongst the Anglish-speaking community and the largest club in the country is ASA Katzilya. The national team has had some international success and is presently ranked as the 19th best team in the world, its best ranking yet.

Chess is widely popular across Tikva and is enjoyed by citizens of all ages. Although widespread, chess is often associated with Juddish people with roots from Aluxia. There are many grandmasters and chess players have won a number of youth world championships. Tikva stages an annual international championship and hosted a previous World Team Chess Championship during the 1980s. The Ministry of Education and the World Chess Federation agreed upon a project of teaching chess within national schools, and it has been introduced into the curriculum of some schools. Tikva grandmaster Avidgor Sharansky won the Chess World Cup twice, in 1978 and 1980. The city of Ben Yam currently has one of the highest concentration of chess grandmasters of anywhere in the world, owed mostly to the immigration of Juddish people from Aluxia in the late 1980s.