History of Zamastan
This is the historical account of the nation of Zamastan. (EDITOR'S NOTE: ARTICLE IS NOT FULLY CANON - THERE ARE NON-CANON ELEMENTS THAT HAVE YET TO BE FIXED AND/OR ADJUSTED)
- 1 History
- 1.1 Zamah St'an tribes
- 1.2 Catica Zamah St'an
- 1.3 Skith Discovery and Colonization
- 1.4 Revolution of 1804 (Zamastan War of Independence)
- 1.5 Unification of the Colonies
- 1.6 Tomias Hapson
- 1.7 Constitution
- 1.8 The Era of Avi Taures
- 1.9 The Parabocan War
- 1.10 Entrance to the 20th Century
- 1.11 Election of Marvin Gaviria
- 1.12 Marvin Gaviria and the Cold War
- 1.13 Post-Gaviria Era
- 1.14 Castovia Era
- 1.14.1 Emergency Election
- 1.14.2 Early Acts
- 1.14.3 First War in Vulkaria (1983-1991)
- 1.14.4 Facing Communism
- 1.14.5 Mara Castovia gives Birth
- 1.14.6 Conflict with the U.N.
- 1.14.7 Cadair Crisis and 1991 Bjeorg Conflict
- 1.14.8 Revitalization of the Economy
- 1.14.9 Treviso Nuclear Crisis
- 1.14.10 Second War in Vulkaria (2004-2005)
- 1.14.11 Death
- 1.15 Zacharias Castovia Years
- 2 Anya Bishop Presidency
Main article: History of Zamastan
Zamah St'an tribes
Migration and conquest
Catica Zamah St'an
Skith Discovery and Colonization
Percy Armillio discovers Zamah St'an
The land that would come to be known as Zamastan was discovered in 1704 by Percy Armillio, a Skithan national and explorer who stumbled upon the land inadvertently during one of his expeditions on behalf of the Skithan Empire. The Empire was a major world power at the time and was in the process of expanding its imperialist ambitions to the New World where they had already established multiple colonies in the Pacific Ocean. When he came across the previously unknown landmass, Armillio's intended destination had been Doris, another island in the Pacific located south of Zamastan, which the Skithan had already begun colonizing some five years previously. Aboard his ship traveling with him were a crew of approximately 100 men brought along to assist Armillio upon landing in Doris as well as an additional hundred African slaves. The captive African men were sent over from the Skithan mainland with the intended task of performing slave labor to assist in the construction of the colony on Doris.
Upon reaching this island and immediately realizing it was not his intended destination, Armillio became curious and ordered all crew to round up the captives and disembark the vessel with him as they set out on a brief exploration of the land. About fifty men accompanied Armillio as rudimentary maps were drawn up as accurately as possible while the other fifty held the slave laborers at gunpoint and ordered them to begin collecting any resources available. Cranberry and strawberry bushes, rocks embedded with iron and silver vessels, and wheat parses were just some of the commodities that were gathered and hauled back to the ship day after day after day. The Africans captives performing these tasks were sometimes not fed for weeks and when they were, extremely small portions were all the Skithan afforded them. They were given water on such a frequency so as to just barely keep them from becoming too dehydrated to perform the constant, back-breaking labor they were subjected to. Conditions were miserable and desperate; on occasion the slaves would be made to fight one another to the death by their captors with the winner receiving a minuscule amount of extra food or water. The Skithan found these "slave fights" entertaining and would make wagers among themselves as to who would win. Sometimes even the victor, after being coerced into killing one of his own with the promise of a slightly fuller stomach, would be denied his "prize" anyway and left to starve just the same.
King Almarez II of Skith was thrilled to hear Percy Armillio's news of the newly discovered island upon his return to the Empire's mainland. Armillio had returned with significantly less slaves than he had departed with due to countless of them succumbing to either starvation, dehydration, exposure, or just simply being executed by the Skith men for any number of reasons. But what he did bring back was a ship full of valuable commodities gathered from the island, which he requested the King see for himself, going on to inform him that the place was almost completely uninhabited save for small clusters of primitive natives and abundant with a variety of resources that would prove quite profitable to the Empire. It was also said that the location of this new land would give them a larger and more strategic base of operations for their expanding sphere of influence in the Pacific and Western North America. It did not take long for King Almarez II to begin planning the colonization of Armillio's discovery and within six years by 1710, he had set sail towards Zamastan once again with another, even larger crew this time around. Upon arriving once again, Percy Armillio and his men began searching the island systematically for the native peoples they had caught brief glimpses of on their previous voyage. Upon locating the unsuspecting indigenous tribes, the Skithan would feign friendliness at first, attempting to gain their trust with the intention of luring any additional natives who may have seen the invaders coming from the shore and retreated into the jungles out into the open. Once exposed, the plan was to take the entire population captive and put them to work alongside their long-suffering African laborers; this would exponentially increase the amount of resources that could be harvested and shipped back to Skith. As with the Africans, any of the native islanders who resisted or could not perform the endless labor to the satisfaction of the Skithan were shot without hesitation as were any with disabilities that prevented them from working, as they were seen to be of no usefulness.
Throughout the rest of the century, the Skith Empire continued exploiting the indigenous peoples as well as Africans purchased in the slave market, using them at first to harvest the many natural resources the island offered and eventually to begin constructing towns and roads to connect these towns. The laborers themselves were not permitted to reside in the towns they had been forced to build; these were reserved for Skith men and their families as more and more sailed to Zamastan from Skith. King Almarez II desired the colony to consist of his own countrymen; the plan was to use the natives and Africans to construct the infrastructure for the colony and subsequently to exterminate the entirety of them. This would hypothetically guarantee that the colony would consist solely of pure-blooded Skithan settlers, who were viewed as far superior to the "primitive" natives. Through the late 1700s numerous revolts were attempted by the slaves; the Africans and natives did not necessarily trust one another but realized their chances of freedom were far better if they were united in the effort.
Revolution of 1804 (Zamastan War of Independence)
On July 17th, 1802, an African slave named Tomias Hapson and a Skithan hand master named Avi Taures, who had developed friendships with the slaves he watched over, raided a munitions depot in the primary settlement of Tofino. After a battle that lasted for several hours, over 300 Skithan soldiers and settlers were killed, and the slave army took over the port. Tomias Hapson and Avi Taures recruited several thousand slaves, along with abolitionist white and native colonists, and began a purge in the city to kill all slave owners and Skithan military and colonial personnel. For nearly 11 months, the rebels went on a hunt for colonialists who remained loyal to the crown, and on October 2nd, 1803, a mob killed the mayor and his family while they attempted to reach a departing ship in the port of Maple Bay.
The next week as news reached Skith, King Almarez had issued an order for Hapson and Taures to be executed by any capable man on the island and announced that a reward of over 50,000 shinnels would be given to anyone able to complete the task. He was well aware of the favorable treatment Taures had been giving to the slave laborers on the colony and had also heard rumors about the makeshift army he was assembling in preparation for a rebellion against the Skith crown. In response to this, the King decided to ship approximately 5,000 more Skithan Army soldiers to the colony with the sole mission of suppressing this rebellion should it come to fruition. At the same time, Tomias Hapson was continuing his campaign to rally up supporters for his cause as tension in Zamah St'an rose to a boiling point.
Capturing the Governor's Residence
On September 3rd, 1804, the Zamastan War of Independence officially marked its turning point with Hapson and a division of about 50 of his loyal soldiers (a diverse group consisting of native Zamah St'an and African slaves as well as national soldiers who shared Taures' ideals) initiating a surprise midnight attack on the Governor's Mansion in the capital of Tofino. Chico Pisano, who was appointed by King Almaraz as his replacement as Governor of the colony, had recently taken up residence there. Hapson and Taures's men, who had come to be known as the National Liberation Front, surrounded the building and strategically made their way towards Pisano's living quarters after breaking their way into the massive residence. Having been provided with substantial weaponry via the many Skithan soldiers who had defected to the NLF, Taures's group of guerilla fighters were surprisingly well-equipped for the operation and even more importantly, most had intense passion for their cause. Not only were the Skithan fighters motivated by the moral disagreements they had with the occupation of Zamastan, but also because it was widely known that soldiers for the Kingdom were not treated much differently than mere peasants back in their homeland. Once they had outlived their usefulness in times of war, they were given lowly jobs back in Skith and given little to no recognition or compensation for risking their lives in the name of their country. Many believed they would be better off assisting Hapson and Taures in their cause and earning the colony its independence, which in turn would create a place where they could create a more desirable society for themselves.
Hapson's decision to conduct the assault on the Governor's Mansion in the middle of the night paid off for the NLF, as they were met with relatively light resistance from Governor Pisano's bodyguards, all of whom were armed and told to be ready for war to break out but were not anticipating the first target to be Governor Pisano. Some were half-asleep as Hapson and his men made their way from hallway to hallway, room to room in search of Pisano; the guards were taken out with very light losses to Hapson's forces with one two of his men sustaining moderate but not life-threatening injuries. Once the NLF team reached Pisano's living quarters and broke the door down after hearing movement inside, they encountered an almost trembling Governor who had managed to arm himself after hearing the commotion throughout the residence. He froze for a moment as he eyed the dozen or so men who stood in his doorway, all with their weapons aimed squarely at him. He made a last-ditch effort to raise his weapon and fire but was gunned down and killed before he was able to fire a single round in their direction.
Skith Abandons the Colonies
Hapson and his men had completed their first major objective; removing the only Skith politician in power in Zamastan and giving their cause the momentum that it needed going forward. Three weeks later, the King of Skith ordered a halt on all shipments and settlement travel to and from the island colonies, and the Free State of Zamah St'an was established on October 28th, 1804 with Tomias Hapson as the de-facto President, Avi Taures as the Chief of Trade and Commerce, and an abolitionist named Henry Tiller as the General of Armed Forces.
Unification of the Colonies
Conquering Neighboring Provinces
Besides the massive construction projects of Tofino and the Maple Canal, Taures' tactics and ambitions also led the way for many brand-new projects. He ordered long stretches of weather-proof roads built, stretching in all directions from Tofino, the lakeside settlement of Emerald, and the southern stretching islands to the port of Point Tarin. This system of highways and bridges led to massive migrations of people to erect new metropolitan areas around Zamastan’s borders. Water canals, sewage systems, and aqueducts were established, bringing fresh water from lakes and mountains and into towns and cities.
Capture of Alanis
Then, military conquests and protective missions were carried out by Henry Tiller and Luis Percia, a man whom President Hapson had met during his rebellion. Percia was a shorter, but bulky man from the northern gulf city of White Rock. The military excursions went into the remaining settlements across the archipelago, such as Alanis in the east. In 1840, Alanis and the surrounding towns struck an agreement with Zamah St'an, joining the nation and stretching its borders to two shores, the Pacific on the West, South, and East.
In the northern island conglomeration, an area that the Skith Empire had steered away from colonizing due to dense forest and swamp-like biomes, fishing settlements were seldom crossed through and only settled by a few ten thousand families. For the extensive and prospective promise of trading and military posts, President Hapson ordered Tiller and Percia to annex the northern islands. By 1842, Zamah St'an had gained control of the whole archepeligo, with road systems leading extensively from the capital of Tofino, to the eastern coastal city of Providence, to the northernmost settlement of Tarial.
Building of the Maple Canal
In 1804, Chief of Trade Taures authorized the building a canal and Augusto Yago Rivera, a Skith national who had overseen such projects in his homeland in the past, was set to take the lead on the ambitious endeavor. Prior to this time, any ships heading to Zamastan from across the Pacific had to navigate their way around the island to reach the main port cities, the most important of these being Arinals, one of the first towns built on the island as well as the colony's main economic hub. Arinals was located on the southern coast; this canal would allow trade vessels to sail straight through the island rather than traveling around it, and this would significantly save both resources and time. Thus, upon arriving in Zamastan, Augusto Yago Rivera was provided with hundreds of workers from the Chief of Trade and under his direction they began work on what would become known as the Maple Canal upon its completion in 1821.
With the newly completed Maple Canal providing easier access to the main port in Arinals, trading of Zamastan's goods and resources became an even more lucrative industry, boosting the already powerful Empire's global influence. With Zamastan itself becoming more and more populated with towns, roads, and other crucial infrastructure, King Almarez II decided to send one of his most loyal men, Benito Franco, as Ambassador of the country. Franco was the son of a native Zamastan mother and a Skith father who happened to be of relation to Almarez, having been conceived during the forced reproduction program instituted by the King years before. He had been born in the colony and had been loyal to Skith interests on the island for his entire life, thus earning the trust of respect of both the King and other top officials across the Pacific colonies. He was given the title of Ambassador in 1837 and the position placed the reestablishment of relationships with Zamastan, allowing for an economic boom in the young nation.
On October 28th, 1844, President Hapson and members of his cabinet arrived by carriage at the Congressional Hall in Tofino. A crowd of onlookers surrounded the convoy as they pulled to the steps but were quickly pushed back to the sides by National Guardsmen. As Tomias Hapson stepped out of the carriage, he decided to stop and shake hands in the crowd to the right of the pathway. After about twenty seconds of greeting the masses, a man stepped forward and extended his hand to fire a pistol seven times into Hapson's chest and neck. As the president collapsed and guards and bystanders alike tackled the gunman, chaos ensued and the crowd began to run in a stampede. The president was rushed inside the capital house, where he was attended to by the house surgeon. However, the president had bled out on the short rush up the steps from the place he was shot and was pronounced dead at 1:29 PM. The assassin, a man named Reginald Isser had been crushed to death in the stampede, along with another 14 bystanders and a guardsman. Notes found in his rundown neighborhood home gave details into his motive. Isser had believed that the government of Zamah St'an was approaching that of a dictatorship, with Hapson taking control as a freed slave and staying in power for 40 years. In fact, Hapson's assassination happened to fall on the 40-year anniversary of the founding of Zamah St'an as a nation. In the wake of the killing, Avi Taures took the position of President. A month of national mourning was put into effect.
Though the nation mourned for the death of their leader, the new and hastily created administration under President Taures decided to draft an official documented constitution to outline governing processes in order to avoid a totalitarian government. In 1845, almost one year after Taures took office, the official Constitution of Zamah St'an was published. Among other things, it highlighted basic rights given to citizens, the formation of government, the length between presidential elections (which would be held every two years), and the formation of law setting standards for the newly established Congress and Senate.
The first National elections were held on September 22nd, 1846 across Zamah St'an. Of the roughly 16 million citizens who voted across the country, more than 12 million chose for Avi Taures to reinstate a second term as president, and local governments were also established by the elections. An interesting event also took place: the referendum to simplify the nation's name from the traditional Zamah St'an to Zamastan. This moment was considered the beginning of democracy in the country.
The Era of Avi Taures
Rebuilding the Military
Throughout the rest of the 1840s and into the first half of the 1850s, President Avi Taures directed his focus on establishing both the military and the infrastructure of Zamastan. Money was needed for these endeavors, and that money began to flow in steadily as Taures negotiated trade deals with Pacific Ocean neighbors such as the United States of America and British and French colonies, who since the rebellion had been a vital ally and friend of Zamastan. The Americans agreed to a deal which would see them purchasing vast amounts of lumber and ore from their western neighbors each month; this arrangement alone provided Taures with enough funds to begin the construction of army barracks facilities and naval bases for the country's young armed forces. Taures also purchased an enormous number of rifles and other infantry equipment from the Canadian port of Vancouver.
Taures also tasked the Ministry of State with the job of creating an elaborate network of railroads to link town across the country, which also aided the young nation's economy by making the shipment of goods and transportation in general an easier endeavor. By the 1860s, a completed railroad system connected the entire island together. Construction also began on many new towns during this decade; prior to this Zamastan was made up of a handful of major cities from which the rest of the country was relatively isolated. Roads were also starting to pop up across the island alongside the railroad network; this provided yet another effective form of transport.
Taures opened up an immense communications network with other nations, including the British Empire, the United States of America (which at the time was requesting support from any nation militarily and morally in the midst of a civil war, but the embassy opened previously in 1853), the Canadian Commonwealth (Embassy opened in 1871).
President Taures unveiled a wide array of industrial ambitions during the 1860s as well, with the country constructing hundreds of factories within the newly built cities as the nation's workforce more than doubled and the enormous amount of natural resources available were utilized to their full potential. Many citizens relocated to urban areas to find work in the factories; others found work in the booming ore industries. The average income among Zamastan citizens more than tripled during the 1860s and the national economy flourished; these advances allowed Taures to commit additional resources to the country's military as well; troop numbers increased, more modern equipment and firearms were acquired, and the construction of more combat-capable ships improved the capacity and effectiveness of the country's naval forces, which were regarded as the most important branch given the fact that the country was an island chain.
In 1867, Avi Taures fell ill with a rare strain of influenza which all but incapacitated him. Upon the realization that he could no longer fully take care of his own basic needs, let alone govern a nation, Taures called for an immediate election in order to find his replacement. He himself nominated several candidates from his cabinet since the election was occuring on such short notice; William Castovia was his Minister of Defense and a trusted personal friend who had once been a member of the National Liberaton Front. Castovia had fought alonside Taures and Hapson during the War of Independence and loyally served as Minister of Defense since Taures became President. The other candidate chosen was Renald Porres, the Minister of the Interior and also a former NLF member. The two candidates toured the nation for several weeks campaigning before the national election was held in March of 1868. William Castovia won the office of President by a narrow margin in an extraordinarily close ballot; both men were extremely popular around the country due to their close association with Zamastan's beloved first leader.
Avi Taures lived long enough to personally swear William Castovia into office and give his full approval to his close friend and successor; he died a few weeks later at his home. One of William Castovia's first acts as the new President was to declare an official month-long nationwide period of mourning; Taures had been widely regarded by citizens and scholars alike as being the one of the prime reasons the country had gained its independence from the Skithan Empire in the first place due to his formation of the National Liberation Front and his determination in fighting the occupiers. The people of the country turned out in the thousands for Taures' public viewing in May 1868, as men and women alike could be seen openly weeping at the loss of their leader. Over the course of his 24-year reign, he won all 12 presidential elections that were held. As a historical figure, Taures was responsible for Zamastan's transformation from a nation newly freed from the grips of colonialism to a nation of considerable influence in the region with a respected and rapidly growing military and a burgeoning economy that showed enormous promise.
The Parabocan War
Bombardment of Kelowna - War Begins
In 1871, the Parabocan Federation, located to the south-east of Zamastan, unexpectedly declared war upon the nation, citing its intention to expand its territory and improve its economic power. President Manuelo Cardoza had recently negotiated a deal with Skith, whose empire had once dominated the eastern pacific region but was now a shadow of its former self due to a stagnant economy and burgeoning independence movements in its colonies, to purchase the small island of Quetana located to the southeast of Zamastan. Skith's economy in its homeland was on the verge of collapse and in an effort to prevent this, King Almarez IV had decided to begin auctioning off the few remaining colonies in its possession. Paraboca purchased Quetana as well as the Pajaros Islands to the north of Zamastan and subsequently was able to establish naval and land bases for its armed forces in their new territories. This provided them substantial military presence in the region. President Cardoza had decided to stage an invasion of Zamastan, whose abundant natural resources and position as the largest island chain in the Pacific Ocean served as prime motivation for this decision. If Parabocan forces could capture the Zamastan mainland and take control of their resources, the nation's economy would become the most dominant in the region.
Parabocan Land Invasion
Thus, a fleet of Parabocan battleships were deployed to the east coast of Zamastan; when they approached the island, they began a massive and unexpected assault upon the naval base at Kelowna, home to a large number of newly constructed ships. The Parabocan fleet was able to destroy nearly 75% of the naval vessels docked at Kelowna before President Castovia was able to scramble ships from the next closest naval base, Aster, and begin to muster a counterassault. The Parabocan Navy was considerably more advanced than its younger counterpart, and the acquisition of the Pajaros Islands and Quetana allowed them to coordinate attacks from three sides at once. This proved to be too much for the Zamastan armed forces to handle, and by the end of the year Paraboca was landing boots on the ground on the eastern shores of the island and moving them inland.
Desperate for assistance to avoid being overrun by the invaders, which far outnumbered and outmatched his own military, President Castovia called on Zamastan ally United States of America to intervene on their behalf; to ensure this he promised the USA government an enormous reduction in the costs of the lumber and ore that the nation purchased from Zamastan each year as per their longstanding trade agreement. This essentially provided the enormous nation with free goods for the next several years and it would take a toll on the previously thriving Zamastan economy for years to come as well; however, President Castovia reasoned it was a worthwhile price to pay to ensure the freedom of his people and the survival of the Republic itself. America herself had only endured a civil war seven years prior, and was thus recovering. However, Ulysses S. Grant, the famed general and now-president abridged, accepting the proposition of free goods as an additional boost to the Reconstruction period in the American South.
In 1872, American troops landed on the north and east coasts of its neighbor, linking up with Zamastan forces in an effort to begin to drive out the invading Parabocans, who had charged eastwards and occupied roughly a third of the nation by that point as the Zamastan army desperately tried to push them back. America also quietly sent ships to the Parabocan-controlled Pajaros Islands as well as the island of Quetana in order to lay siege to the country's military installations in its new colonies. Parabocan attention was too focused on the situation on the Zamastan mainland and their resources spread too thin to devote the manpower needed to defend these locations, and soon the naval bases and army barracks in both regions were completely destroyed by Tosquitian forces. President Cardoza entered talks with Skith and attempted to persuade the crumbling empire to enter the war on the side of the Parabocans, but King Almaraz IV refused, claiming resources were too strained to commit the armed forces to the conflict taking place an ocean away from its location in western Europe. Cardoza was, however, able to squeeze promises of small shipments of munitions out of the country in support of the war.
The conflict was quickly racking up an enormous body count as Zamastan and American soldiers continued their relentless efforts to push Parabocan troops back to the eastern coast of the island. This was not an easy task, however, even with the combined efforts of the two countries. Parabocan President Cardoza was absolutely committed to seeing the invasion through no matter how many of his men fell to the enemy, and he persisted in sending reinforcements every several months in an effort to keep control of the portion of the Zamastan occupied by his troops.
Chanchajilla Joins the War
The nation of Chanchajilla, which shared a border with Paraboca in the west, entered the war in early 1873 out of fears that their country would be next to be the target of Parabocan expansionism. Several thousand troops stormed across the border in February of that year, placing Chanchajilla on the side of Zamastan and America. In March, President Castovia invited the leaders of the two nations to a conference in the capital city of Tofino. Chanchajillan Prime Minister Alonzo Ruiz and American President Ulysses Grant obliged and diplomatic talks were held over a period of four days, where the nations agreed to coordinate their efforts against the Parabocan forces. An official treaty was drafted which aligned the three nations as allies; a non-aggression pact was also signed.
Battle of Gavit Harbor
As news of the formal alliance found its way to Paraboca, President Cardoza again reached out to Skith in seek of support. With the economy having stabilized and begun to improve since their previous talks and the nation eager to gain a strong ally in the Pacific region it once dominated, King Almarez IV finally agreed to enter the war on the side of Paraboca; he stayed true to his word and formally declared war on the three allied nations the next day while addressing the country's Parliament. Several thousand Skithan troops were deployed from the mainland and shipped across the Atlantic towards the combat zone, accompanied by multiple naval fleets which led the way. Skith's entrance into the conflict was a major event; it effectively balanced the scale as Paraboca was no longer fighting three nations on its own, stretching its resources to the breaking point.
Skithan ships began engaging American and Zamastanian ships near the Pajaros Islands and Quetana in an effort to recapture Paraboca's naval bases in the regions. Fierce and deadly exchanges between the two sides followed, with a total of 24 vessels between the two sides being destroyed in the span of a week in late 1873 as the American and Zamastan forces desperately held off the superior Skith navy.
In 1874, Rio Palitos entered the war on the side of Zamastan, The United States of America, and Chanchajilla. Its position just southeast of the Zamastan worried senior government officials, who were convinced that if Paraboca won the war it would most certainly seek to annex their country as well. Rio Palitos had been Zamastan;s oldest and most trusted ally since many of the country's citizens traveled to the Zamastan to fight the Skithan occupation decades earlier. Financial and material aid had been being sent to Zamastan monthly to support the war effort, but Rio Palitos had initially been hesitant to enter the conflict directly. They finally joined the side of their neighbor and their nation was formally added to the multi-nation alliance treaty that had been signed the previous year. With six nations now involved, most of the Eastern Pacific region was effectively an active warzone. Rio Palito's addition to the fray was a deciding factor in the allies preventing Paraboca from reclaiming its naval bases in Quetana and the Parajos Islands; in late 1874 the two regions were offically occupied by the allied forces.
By mid 1875, Zamastan and its allies had pushed the Parabocans back to the western coastline where their invasion had begun. Skith reinforcements had arrived from Europe, but were not as effective as expected. A large majority of them were rerouted to the Parabocan homeland, where troops were just barely holding off Chanchajillan troops. With the Skith troops providing a much needed boost, the Chanchajillans were pushed back across the border and out of the country just as Skith and its allies were eliminating the last remaining soldiers in the west of Zamastan.
A peace treaty was sought by Parabocan President Manuelo Cardoza in 1876 as he was informed of an impending invasion by the four allied countries. Paraboca had been on the defensive for months after a fourth country joined the alliance against the nation, and Skith was pulling its forces out of the war as they began to realize it was becoming a futile effort. Peace was agreed upon by Puerto Colijito and its allies, with the strict condition that Paraboca no longer have dominion over Quetana and the Pajaros Islands, which they had previously purchased from Skith. Backed into a corner and with no leverage to make any demands of his own, Cardoza reluctantly signed the treaty in May 1876 and peace was restored to the Pacific Ocean. Quetana and the Pajaros Islands were temporarily put into the custody of the four victorious nations, who worked to install independent governments in both areas over the next few years. By 1878, both were officially recognized as independent nations.
Entrance to the 20th Century
In 1880, President William Castovia won his sixth election as President, meaning he had served 12 years as the Head of State. The last 20 years of the 19th century was mostly deticated to reconstructing the nation after the disastrous war.
Election of 1906
Castovia was advancing in age during the first decade of the 1900s and realized his ability of effectively lead the nation was escaping him, largely due to a diagnosis of cancer in 1905 that was quickly ravaging his body and causing his health to decline. He set up the Republic's first fully democratic election to take place in early 1906. Candidates were able to run for office at will; this marks a sharp contrast to the nation's first election organized by Avi Taures where Taures hand-picked the two candidates from members of his own cabinet, though the citizens were still able to vote for the victor. For the 1906 race, several individuals entered the race, mostly ones who had served in some capacity in the federal government. Multiple Senators and Congressmen organized campaigns, as did other members of Castovia's administration. Seven men in total made a bid for the position of President and on election day in September 1906, over 2,000,000 Zamastan citizens made their way to their local polling station to cast their vote. Elias Blanco, a 42-year-old man who had served for 8 years in the nation's Congress and 5 years before that in the Senate, ultimately won the election by a slim margin and a few weeks later was officially sworn in as the fourth Zamastan President.
Blanco understood the effects that the war with Paraboca had caused on the national economy, and the remedy of this situation was one of the key promises he made during his campaign. Upon invading and temporarily occupying nearly a third of the country just over a decade prior, Parabocan soldiers were given orders by their President to destroy any crops they came across; this resulted in many of Zamastan's wheat, soy, and corn crops being lost. As these three products formed the backbone of the national agricultural economy, trade began to suffer substantially. The occupying soldiers also ransacked dozens if not hundreds of factories that had been constructed just decades earlier by William Castovia. A large portion of people in the west of the country were made homeless and unemployed as a result of this. Parabocans had also destroyed residential farms and crops belonging to Zamastan civilians, often dousing the soil with volatile chemicals that rendered the soil infertile; this caused thousands of people to perish from starvation as they had neither the ability to grow their own food nor the money or resources to buy it.
In 1908 Blanco established a large, well-funded welfare initiative within the Ministry of the Interior whose primary function was the allocation of both a basic income for those suffering from poverty in the west as well as the distribution of enough food to sustain them. Blanco thought this project to be of high importance; utilizing government resources to ease the harships of the citizens affected by the war would both increase the people's confidence in their government and allow them to adequately provide for their basic needs. In addition to this, Blanco held an emergency meeting of the national Congress to discuss the allocation of funds to be used to initiate the process of rebuilding the hundreds of industrial factories destroyed during the war. The proposal was approved by a wide majority in the Congress and the rebuilding of factories commenced a month after. This project almost immediately reduced unemployment in the western provinces with the creation of thousands of jobs in the form of construction workers, contractors, electricians, and other workers which were needed in the rebuilding efforts. These programs initiated by Blanco came to be known as the "Blanco Initiative".
By 1913, nearly 80% of all factories destroyed during the war with Paraboca had been rebuilt and the national economy was showing signs of improvement. By 1916, unemployment rates in western Zamastan had returned to pre-war levels, with the rebuilding effort having created both construction jobs and, once the factories had been successfully reconstructed, thousands of job opportunities working in these factories became available as well. Though nearly 15,000 people in the west of the country had perished as a result of malnutrition and starvation, the quality of life in this region was steadily returning to its typical level. President Blanco, having seen the enormous success of the welfare initiative he had approved for those affected by the war, met with Congress once again to discuss employing a welfare program that would offer assistance to Zamastanians across the entire country. By this time, there was sufficient room in the national budget to begin this program, and in 1917 the program was formally introduced after being approved by Congress members. A basic income was provided by the state to both individuals having a difficult time securing employment as well as to those who for physical or mental reasons could not work. A monthly quota of both cash assistance as well as free food, clothing, and housing was provided for the less fortunate in Zamastan. A devastating earthquake struck the capital of Tofino in early 1919, and over 50,000 people were killed. A massive reconstruction campaign was launched and despite the disaster, the program initiated thousands of new jobs and added an increase to the nation's economy.
Age of Flight
By 1920, airplanes had seen their first use in military roles; namely during World War I. Zamastan was officially neutral during the European conflict, but having seen the usefulness and popularity of aircraft in the war, President Blanco officially created a third division of the country's armed forces: the Zamastan Air Force. In 1921, he tasked his Minister of Defense (who was head of both the Ministry of Defense as well as the Ministry of War at this time) to begin work on a joint project between the two government departments. Blanco ordered the production of a combat-ready aircraft and set 1925 as the deadline for the completion of the project. He realized that the dynamics of war were changing across the entire globe, and wanted to be able to ensure that the Republic of Zamastan would not fall years behind the other countries of the world in the sophistication of its military. A national air force would allow the nation to keep pace with its neighbors in the region, a matter of great importance because of the ever-present possibility of war breaking out suddenly as it did when the Parabocans attacked Zamastan suddenly and without provocation. The very first combat-capable aircraft produced by Zamastan was unveiled in 1923, two years ahead of schedule, and was christened the Z-33 Milano. After personally observing test flights and the plane's combat capabilities, Blanco ordered his Minister of Defense/Minister of War to go ahead with the production of 500 of the new aircraft immediately.
The roaring 20's were a period of economic boom for Zamastan. The new wealth captured by the masses was portrayed in evidence by the newly imported Ford Model-T's roaming the furbished streets of Tofino, with gas lanterns lighting the smoothly paved asphalt roads. The progression of the 20th century was hitting Zamastan rapidly, and similarly to the United States, wealthy businessmen began to take control of the open markets and monopolize on virtually any stock. Frank Rabernath, a man with exceptional wealth from his Irish-immigrant father, made a massive enterprize out of the oil feilds in Eastern Pahl, accumulating a wealth of nearly $80 Billion adjusted for inflation. By 1927, Rabernath Industries became the second largest oil company in the world after John D. Rockefeller's company in America.
While the progress of the world economy resonated for the majority of the 1920's, the Stock Market Crash of October 1st, 1929, immediatly demolished the possibility of a easy, quick rebound. As the United States and most of the world suffered drastic drops of economic prowess and the destruction of established banks and currencies, Zamastan only followed suit. Unemployment climbed from 2% to nearly half. Teenagers and young adults were often only able to find jobs in the military or private establishments, and the Ziapet dollar itself fell from being worth $1.32 to $0.31. Rabernath's massive wealth also fell apart, and in a state of depression, he killed his wife, four kids, and five maids before taking his own life. The Rabernath Murders shocked the nation and the world, and ultimetly led to greater breaking up of corporations that heavily monopolized. In 1936, President Blanco tried to set in initiations for the Zamastan Government to follow newly elected U.S. President Roosevelt's example of government funded projects to propel the nation out of depression, but failed to rally to his cause effectively such as his Blanco Initiative in 1908. Though Elias Blanco had always been a leader of the people, but his failiure to pull Zamastan out of the Great Depression ultimeltly lost him his 18th election to a man named Tyler Kordia, who became the fifth President of Zamastan.
Election of Marvin Gaviria
Elections were held in 1946, as per every two years, and Tyler Kordia's transition from economic hero to the leader of a recession ultimately found him denounced from regaining a sixth term. He lost by narrow margin to Marvin Gaviria, who became the sixth President of Zamastan.
Marvin Gaviria and the Cold War
As the US's prowess under the use of two nuclear weapons at the end of the second world war resulted in a sudden revelation that Russia was also creating weapons of epic mass destruction, Marvin Gaviria carefully made certain to not take either side in this new world reality. This, where other countries had become the feeding ground for USSR or US invasion, resulted in both superpowers vying for Zamastan's interests. On one hand, the United States had been a staunch ally of Zamastan's since the Parabocan War and helped assist in protecting the nation from the Japanese during the Pacific theater. On the other, the USSR was willing to provide billions of dollars into infrastructure costs, whereas the USA was more interested in military assistance. Gaviria denied both nations from taking a major role in their foreign affairs. Instead, the Gaviria government decided to take a route similar to that of the Netherlands, who was beginning to make expedition projects where they outsourced construction and trade to newly developed or freed nations. In 1948, in the wake of America's own Marshall Plan, Zamastan started reaching out to Eastern Africa with the Parrish Plan (named after Secretary of Infrastructure, Stephan Parrish). This created an influx of trade routes and projects that funneled massive sums of money to Zamastan. As the Parrish Plan created Zamastan’s own economic rise prompted a rise in capitalism and a renewal of big business, small businesses grew profoundly as well. Family owned business became a dream for many, and to current day, one of the most popular activities for tourists is visiting local family owned cafes and shops. This was the beginning of a near undisrupted economic build upwards for the next 70 years.
On September 24th, 1970, Zamastan was faced with invasion from a massive and successful Gladysynthia crossing of the Danaska River in Northern Zamastan. Gladysynthian forces crossed the cease-fire lines, then advanced virtually unopposed into the Sinai Peninsula. After three days, Zamastan had mobilized most of its forces and halted the Gladysynthian offensive, resulting in a military stalemate. The Gladysynthians coordinated their attack on the Tariel Heights to coincide with the earlier offensive and initially made threatening gains into Zamastan-held territory. Within three days, however, Zamastanian forces had pushed the Gladysynthains back to the pre-war ceasefire lines. The Zamastan Defense Forces then launched a four-day counter-offensive deep into Gladysynthia. Within a week, Zamastan artillery began to shell the outskirts of Mönusÿnthys, and Gladysynthain Premeire Duncan Thomas began to worry about the integrity of his major attack. He believed that capturing two strategic passes located deeper in the Tariel Heights would make his position stronger during post-war negotiations; he therefore ordered the Gladysynthians to go back on the offensive, but their attack was quickly repulsed. The Zamastanians then counter-attacked at the seam between the two Gladysynthian armies, crossed the Danaska River into Gladysynthia, and began slowly advancing southward and westward towards the city of Danaska in over a week of heavy fighting that resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.
On October 22, a United Nations–brokered ceasefire unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By October 24, the Zamastanians had improved their positions considerably and completed their encirclement of Gladysynthian Third Army and the city of Danaska. This development led to tensions between the nation's allies, and a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war.
UN, Proxy Wars, and The Pahlan Insurgencies
A common trend of military proxy wars across the world ensued quietly in the forms of regime changes in Central America and around Asia, and sometimes loudly in the chaos of Korea and Vietnam. Zamastan never participated in any U.N. supported wars, although being an active member, several hundred Zamastan citizens served as U.N. peacekeeper troops from 1947-1990 in activities in Haiti, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Laos. During the 1950’s, a small insurgency of communists sponsored by various socialist governments across the world tried to break away from Zamastan in the form of the FPF, or the Free Pahlan Front. The two major insurgencies never gained major traction, however the separatists did kill several hundred civilians in bombings directed towards the centralized Pahlan state government and military positions. Throughout the rest of the century, FPF sympathizers continuously held rallies that often attracted thousands of people, but their cause never elevated to the status of a political party or separate government.
On September 29th, 1972, amid a rising capitalist economy and flourishing republican styled government, and in the wake of President Marvin Gaviria’s 23rd term reelection to office, he stood in front of a crowd on the stairs of Congressional Hall in Tofino. His approval was sitting at 94%, the highest of any president in Zamastanian history. As he addressed the crowd nearly three minutes into his speech, he grabbed his chest, buckled forward to the podium, and collapsed to the stage. Seconds later, the bang of a sniper rifle bore through the air and the crowd scattered. Around an hour later, authorities found the sniper’s nest on the forty-third floor of an under-construction skyscraper two miles away. Security footage captured someone leaving the scene with the gun, but the perpetrator was never identified, the rifle was never recovered, and the case was never solved. It remains the greatest mystery of Zamastan history. Spawning countless conspiracy theories, the Assassination of Marvin Gaviria rivals even that of the JFK assassination.
In the wake of Gaviria’s assassination, Congressional House Speaker James Ebberson took the place of President-in-Crisis, and emergency elections took place on September 31st, 1972. Voters who once again went to the polls only a week after having cast their votes for a now slain leader chose overwhelmingly for a woman named Elene Abotsford, a member of the Libertarian House of Zamah St’an. As the first female President, Abotsford was a champion for improved conditions for women, including labor laws, increased wages, and more individualistic rights for access to birth control. However, she did manage to win over the majority of the male vote as well by approving bills that endorsed male workers with the ‘2 or more’ program, which gave families with two or more children massive tax breaks in the midst of a booming economy from the Gaviria Administration. She also lowered the voting age in Zamastan from 18 years to 16 years, which empowered more young people to become involved in political processes. Another major accomplishment of Abotsford’s first two years in office was her pursuit of reforming the law enforcement process. She revamped and promoted judges who had histories of balanced decisions in their cases, as well as authority over significant circumstances such as police shootings, racial tension, individualistic rights, and steps overlapping the Zamastan Constitution.
However popular and effective a president she was, voters found another person to put their faith in on election day, 1976. Elene Abotsford lost her bid for a third term to a 32-year-old man named Quinn Werner. Werner was a charming former sports-star turned actor turned politician, who rose to national prominence as the head of the Committee on National Youth Development and an avid supporter of younger generations. In one of the greatest voting turnouts in Zamastan, millions of teenagers now able to vote because of Abotsford’s decreased voting age law cast their polls for a relatable, youthful man from the Green Liberal Party. Werner’s first act as President was to revamp the education system of Zamastan, allowing for public school programs that were more inclusive to originally less opportunistic families. He also created a national food service program that distributed government mandated foods to poorer income families that proved incapable to sustain for themselves. These public service projects shaped the inclusivity and modern day civil prosperity ratings of Zamastan, which measure the livability factors of each aspect of the nation. Experts widely agree that these programs greatly improved life for Zamastan citizens as a whole. Due to the increase of food distribution and education reforms, the generations of Zamastanians became more healthy and intelligent as a whole.
Werner advocated immensely against illegal substance usage and smoking. He and his wife, Hera Maria Werner, broadcast weekly television prompts from the Presidential Mansion to encourage young people and older generations alike to drop bad and unhealthy habits and adopt a healthier lifestyle. Werner was originally a proponent of legalized marijuana usage, but amongst his promotion to the Committee on National Youth Development, he understood the possibilities of weed being used as a gateway drug and famously advised kids to “Stay away from bad stuff”. Hera Werner took a platform against bullying in schools, and often visited the nation’s institutions and met one-on-one with teachers and students. She is to this day one of the most renowned First Ladies of Zamastan.
Election of 1980
Both Elene Abotsford and Quinn Werner were able to accomplish major social changes and upheavals during their time in office without significantly effecting the national economy. This was mostly in part to the strengthened safeguards set in place during Marvin Gaviria’s administration to monitor the growth of monetary funding and loans throughout banks and the severity or loosening of trade deals with other nations. Quinn Werner remained in office for two terms, just like Abotsford. However, unlike his predecessor, he decided not to run for a third term, and after four years in office, stepped down to allow new possibilities. This came in the form of Tofino’s 4th district senator Larry Pattis from the Green Liberal Party (from which the popular Quinn Werner was a part of) and Pahl’s 1st District Congressman Aiden Avery from the Blue Conservatives Party. In one of the most hotly contested elections of all history, the sixth and final Presidential debate was broadcast on national television on September 5th, 1980. Pattis and Avery clashed specifically on the issues of taxes, gun rights, and spring ups of violence from Zamastan Separatists known as the Free Pahlan Front. Pattis remained with his left leaning viewpoints, while Avery wisely reached the more moderated middle ground. When the election day came around, the voting was Pattis with 49.8% and Avery with 49.9%, with the remaining 0.3% going to other candidates. Thus, the closest Presidential race in Zamastan history went to Aiden Avery.
President Avery’s most notable act in his first year in office was the passing of the Individual-Armament Act, which created a system of background checks for guns effective enough to stop the purchasing of firearms by people with certain mental health disorders, people with violent pasts, and people who couldn’t pass a one hundred question test about gun safety. Crime rates, specifically murders, significantly decreased, and gun deaths both accidental, intentional, or via suicide dropped from the 10th leading cause of death to the 64th leading cause of death. Experts attribute this law to the reason in 2017, Zamastan only saw 90 individual gun murders, though a mass shooting by a man with schizophrenia who stole a legal firearm did kill 34 people. However, the results are clear that the law greatly improved the overall safety of the nation without hindering too greatly on the rights of lawful gun owners.
Avery also passed a tax break amidst the roaring Zamastanian economy that benefited lower income families while also changing the rates (though less extensively) for incomes higher than $60,000 a year. However, a controversial passing of a tax increase for previously held health care plans made Zamastanians lose faith in Avery, and he lost his reelection bid in 1982 to Damian Lorrie.
Damian Lorrie used the influence of Aiden Avery’s popularized policies to set up his own foundations for personalized freedoms. Lorrie approved bills that allowed for more individualistic states rights, though he did implement a federal allowance on the use of marijuana. Lorrie was popular under the premise that he held to the moderated line of conservative values mixed with the more liberal civil rights for people. However, only two months into his presidency, Damian Lorrie was killed when the Presidential Plane, Zian Prime 0, crashed on approach to the newly built Tofino International Airport.
The crash of Zian Prime 0 and President Damian Lorrie’s death came as a shock to all Zamastan and the rest of the world, and this event ultimately set in motion the subsequent emergency elections that put Governor Cassious Castovia into office in November of 1982. Cassious was the grandson of William Castovia, who served as the third President of Zamastan from 1862-1906, the longest serving President with 44 years in office followed by Tomias Hapson with 40 years in office and Marvin Gaviria with 26 years in office. Cassious was a 33-year-old at the time of the emergency election, and because of his prominence as the Governor of the Zian Province and his family name, he easily won against the rather unknown and hastily picked candidates.
Castovia’s first act in office was the renewal of public transport systems and safety in personalized vehicles following the Zian Prime 0 crash. The laws he passed set in motion the safety registrations for vehicles including seat belt laws that insured greater protection on the road. Included in this new system of safer roads was a complete overhaul of the current road system, including the installation of nationwide roundabouts as opposed to intersections, wider two lane roads with divergent exits, and more moderate speed limits.
Though most of his first official duties as President for the first quarter of his first term (6 months) were merely social issues, the Supreme Court and the Congressional members of the government discussed a growing trend in the global community – that of legalizing gay marriage. The LGBT community around the world had started gaining momentum, specifically in the fact that laws outlawing homosexuality were being abolished in many Western nations such as European countries and Canada around the 1980s. On June 4th, 1983, Castovia signed a bill that allowed for individual counties to allow their own passage of same-sex marriage. This was a hotly disputed act, but it progressed Zamastan’s social climate further towards the adapting world.
First War in Vulkaria (1983-1991)
On June 18th, 1983, a bomb detonated at a packed LGBT celebration rally in Alanis, killing 106 people and injuring over 400. This attack was originally thought to be perpetrated by a radical hate group, which was condemned by President Castovia and the leaders of nearly every allied nation of Zamastan’s. However, it was soon discovered that the Alanis Pride Parade Bombing was carried out by a terror group operating out of the newly founded nation of Vulkaria. Throughout the rest of the week, many more attacks took place against other targets. Most were small attacks that failed to kill people, however, two attacks of significance did occur that pressed Zamastan’s interest beyond domestic policy for the first time since the second world war. The first of these occurred on June 20th, where a bomb detonated outside of the Presidential Mansion in Tofino, killing seven security guards and four tourists. President Castovia wasn’t injured, but the glass windows of the Gaviria Room in which he was sitting did shatter and injure some of his aids. The second attack was a mass stabbing at the Tofino Airport which resulted in the deaths of three people and the injuries of nearly forty more. Zamastan demanded action, and Castovia started working on a military plan to put Zamastan back into the global schedule.
On July 6th, amid threats from a terrorist organization known as the Malvarian Liberation Front in the nation of Vulkaria, Zamastan for the first time assisted and successfully rolled back an enemy force on foreign soil in Operation Tidal Hawk. The small rocky, coastal grassland nation of Vulkaria had undergone a coup d'état by Bernard Coard, a staunch capitalist seeking to strengthen the country's existing ties with the United States, West Germany, and the Western U.N. nations. The prime minister was killed and insurgents had orders to shoot on sight. Over 1,000 Zamastanians were in the nation, mostly medical students and their families, and the government could not guarantee their security. After the coup, the new Vulkarian government led by Prime Minister Eugenia Charles officially called on the United States for protection, but they refused. Due to the small and relatively insufficient military, the splinter group of the old, Marxist leaning government formed a faction called the Malvarian Liberation Front. This group often attacked villages and were known for their brutality. After their attacks abroad in Zamastan, the M.L.F. was targeted for complete destruction or expulsion. The campaign launched July 6th, 1983, fought primarily against armed M.L.F. insurgents, the Zamastan military invaded and temporarily took control. Their occupation of Vulkaria’s capital fully restored democracy to the nation and fighting became mostly restricted to rural regions after the first three months of more urban centered fighting. Castovia ordered and launched an air strike against Vulkaria after it was found to have connections to the terrorists, specifically in an attack which killed two Zamastanian soldiers.
The Castovia administration also supplied funds and weapons to heavily militarily-influenced government factions in Vulkaria beginning in 1987. In that year, with assistance from the Vulkarian national intelligence agency, the Zamastanian military organized and financed right-wing paramilitaries in the rural villages of Vulkaria, known as the Bungle-Bara. The tracing of secret funds for this scheme led to the revelations of the Zamastan–Bungle affair. In 1988 Castovia authorized the sale of arms in Vulkaria in an unsuccessful effort to free Zamastan hostages in the province of Mulwa; he later professed ignorance that subordinates were illegally diverting the proceeds to the Bungle’s. Castovia's approval ratings plummeted in 1988 as a result of the scandal, and though he won his 4th election, many Zamastanians began to seriously question his judgement. While the president's popularity improved in his final two years, he would never again enjoy the support he had had in 1983-4. The War in Vulkaria, though supported by most Zamastan’s in its reasonings, became a stalemate for the rest of the Castovia administration. The war officially ended on April 28th, 1991, after nearly 8 years of fighting, when Cassious Castovia announced the end to battle-operations within the region. Though the M.L.F. was not completely destroyed, their ability to wage war was significantly diminished. In the course of the war, 8,738 Zamastanian troops were killed, 23,393 Vulkarian troops were killed, and over 109,000 M.L.F. fighters were estimated to have died. Zamastan to this day is one of Vulkaria’s strongest allies and even has a military base within the region which serves as an air force stationing position.
During the rest of his administration, Castovia expressed opposition to the Vietnamese-installed Communist regime of Heng Samrin (and later, Hun Sen) in Cambodia, which had ousted the genocidal Khmer Rouge regime after Vietnam invaded the country. The administration approved military and humanitarian aid to the republican KPNLF and royalist Funcinpec insurgents. The Castovia administration also supported continued UN recognition of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (a tripartite rebel alliance of the KPNLF, Funcinpec, and the Khmer Rouge) over the Vietnamese-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea regime. Castovia also continued Zamastan support for the autocratic Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, an ardent anti-Communist. In a 1990 presidential debate sponsored by the League of Women Voters, he explained his administration's support of Marcos by stating, "I know there are things there in the Philippines that do not look good to us from the standpoint right now of democratic rights, but what is the alternative? It is a large communist movement", referring to active Communist guerrillas operating in the Philippines at the time. The U.S. also had significant strategic military interests in the Philippines, knowing that Marcos's government would not tamper with agreements to maintain U.S. naval bases in the country. Marcos was later ousted in 1986 by the mostly peaceful People Power movement, led by Corazón Aquino.
Mara Castovia gives Birth
Castovia’s wife Mara gave birth to a son on the same day he was reelected to another term in 1990. Zacharias Castovia would in the future continue on the Castovia dynasty in Zamastan politics.
Conflict with the U.N.
Castovia was sharply critical of the United Nations, once the darling of the Zamastanians. He repudiated what he felt was its corruption, inefficiency and failure to assist in the Vulkarian crisis. In 1985-1987, Zamastan joined the U.S. and withdrew from UNESCO, which had failed in its cultural missions, and began to deliberately withhold its UN dues. American policymakers along with their Zamastan counterparts considered this tactic an effective tool for asserting influence in the UN. When the UN and UNESCO mended their ways, the two nations returned and paid its dues.
Cadair Crisis and 1991 Bjeorg Conflict
Revitalization of the Economy
Under the Presidency of Cassious Castovia, the national economy of Zamastan was in a constant state of fluctuating proportions. Early on, the economy was in slow decline, but the introduction of roadworks programs brought jobs and easier travel to the nation, allowing for a growth for several years. Increased civil opportunities for previously less-opportunistic groups such as the LGBT community also grew a small but substantial working group. The economy was hit hard, however, in the first two years of the War in Vulkaria, as funds were directed towards the military. Zamastan’s first solo war abroad did eventually gain momentum as the crisis in Vulkaria began to adjust and stabilize under generals learning how to adapt to foreign combat and were able to create investments for better technologies. This accelerated not only Zamastan’s arms manufacturing economy but strengthened Zamastan’s global standing with its military. The automobile industry also skyrocketed under trade deals with the nation of Novachronos, which included manufacturing and agricultural projects for Novachronos’ emerging economy. Oil exports were nearly crushed under the threats of sanctions against Toa Krotaor, but the resolution of the diplomatic crisis created an international shipping route within this new conglomerate of nations.
In 1995, Zamastan began importing oil, but as consumption kept rising and the nation's oil fields became less productive. Throughout the 1990s the world price of crude oil ranged between $10 and $40, and the average price at the pump did not exceed $1.40. Oil prices tripled after 2002, peaking at $147 in July 2001, about $4 a gallon; the price has continued to fluctuate widely. The theme of "energy independence" led to legislation mandating more fuel-efficient autos—even electric vehicles—and more efficient use of energy, ranging from insulation to new light bulbs. Even worse than the high price, was the fear of shortages. Many proposals and pilot projects for replacement energy sources, from ethanol to wind power and solar power were discussed and, indeed, funded by Congressional Hall after 2000. In the economic stimulus package signed by President Castovia in early 2002, billions of dollars were allocated for research and development of new energy sources.
While public attention focused on supplies from the Middle East, the main source was Canada. After 2003, new methods of extraction opened up vast new deposits of oil in the Labret Formation in Pahl and the Northern Island. As much as two trillion dollars’ worth of natural gas is potentially available in the Ziapet Formation deposits located in the historic 19th-century oil fields in Zian, stretching from Tofino through Jade into western Horseshoe Region. However, there is sharp debate underway regarding the environmental impact on the region's fresh water supply. The question of drilling in the Northern Islands National Wildlife Refuge (NINWR) was highly controversial, but the 2004 Tarin Gulf oil spill put all new drilling on hold.
On January 26th, 1992, a nuclear reactor built by the Soviet Union in the nation of Daybrake shut down unexpectedly. The USSR had disbanded in December of 1991, and all soviet scientists and nuclear workers had returned to their home nation. The new Daybraken workers at the facility had little training, and the strain of continuous small errors led to the overheat and shutdown of one of the seven reactors. For roughly three days, the station was simply abandoned and closed, but the building heat (unknown to the facilities employees) resulted in a combustion explosion, destroying the reactor’s core, outer walls, and damaging the two reactors next to it. The damage then increased drastically as low-pressure systems caused cold air to vent into the heated cores, causing sparks that ignited a nuclear explosion about half the size of the one that destroyed Hiroshima. The reactor was located adjacent to the city of Treviso, and the explosion devastated the outskirts of the city, killing an estimated 5,600 people. The frail Daybrake government tried to cover up the incident, however when scientists detected the radiation plume in the atmosphere directly above Zamastan airspace, President Castovia called the Daybraken Prime Minister as a show of force to block the contamination. He also offered assistance to the radiated citizens of Daybrake. Zamastan scientists and soldiers occupied the contaminated region of Daybrake and to this day, although the Daybraken government is in control of their nation, Zamastan maintains their heavy, unknown, and oftentimes regarded as suspicious activity within the nuclear wasted borderlands.
Second War in Vulkaria (2004-2005)
Cassious Castovia was reelected to his 10th term as President in 2004 amid mild but still above average approval ratings. Among the debate topics during his run was the increasing conflict in Vulkaria. In 1999, a new administration was elected that was lenient towards more radical political thoughts. However, this unintentionally led to a revitalization of the M.L.F. and many other embattled groups wanting to take over power. A civil war erupted in 2000 once again, and the nation was embroiled with Zamastanian interests once again being threatened. Castovia announced a “red-line” against the rebels in 2003, and after his reelection, he decided to send aid to the Vulkarian government in the form of soldiers on October 4th, 2004. On October 15th, the full scope of the civil war’s brutality was realized by the Zamastan military when rebel forces stormed the city of Amstelveen and swiftly captured Vulkarian positions. The city had been considered to be a fortress held by government and Zamastan forces, and it was only a short drive down the national highway from Vulkaria’s capital of Vulkar. Only Zamastanian forces remained in the city on the 16th, however, they were unable to evacuate in the densely compacted town blocks and the fact that they were spread sparsely amid the nearly 600,000 inhabitants.
Rebels began a purge throughout Amstelveen on the 17th, attacking Zamastanian positions and repelling airstrikes with shoulder fired surface-to-air missiles. Central command operating from the capital ordered all troops to rendezvous at the only remaining checkpoint in the city, a moderately guarded airstrip and prison complex used by the Vulkarian military as a staging point next to the national highway. For the next two days, thousands of Zamastanian soldiers fought, often in gritty close quarters, house to house combat, to reach the checkpoint in small groups at a time. Fighter jets and reinforcements tried, to little avail, to support the evacuating troops. By October 19th, all surviving Zamastanian forces had arrived at the base and were evacuated to the capital, preparing for an offensive to take back the city, but the first stage Battle of Amstelveen was a military disaster for both the Vulkarians and the Zamastanians. 16,930 Vulkarian troops were slaughtered during the rebel incursion and 2,933 Zamastan troops were killed trying to evacuate. 11 Zamastan jets were also shot down providing aircover, but an estimated 30,000 rebels were killed during the three days of the battle.
Vulkarian and Zamastan forces began a push into the city from the north and south respectively once again roughly a week later, dropping leaflets over the city warning of the impending bombardment. A crisis began to unfold as citizens tried to leave the northern section of the city before the Vulkarian army arrived. Thousands of citizens became caught in the crossfire of rebel sharpshooters and Vulkarian artillery. Zamastan soldiers did not encounter many civilians during the fighting, but they did discover many mass graves and evidence of biochemical attacks by the rebels in many sections of the southern portion of Amstelveen. By the end of the incursion on October 28th, 6,029 Zamastanians had been killed, 10,240 Vulkarians soldiers were killed, and over 98,000 rebels had been killed. However, the startling statistic was over 200,000 citizens killed in gas attacks, mass killings, executions, and in airstrikes. The civilian death toll was not released until a year after Zamastan pulled out of Vulkaria in 2005 when the war ended. In December, a passenger jet taking off from Vulkaria’s only international airport was shot down by rebels on the outskirts of another heavy battleground city of Barneveld, killing all 320 on board. A Zamastan military plane was also shot down on approach to a base in the city, killing 39 soldiers. The war started to deescalate as rebels began to flee the region in shipping vessels for a long forgotten Vulkarian colony in Southeast Asia. By February 6th, 2005, the remaining rebels surrendered as the escapee insurgents declared a new nation in the former colony, now known as Malware. Costs of the Second Vulkarian War were staggering; 23,246 Zamastanian troops killed, 103,500 Vulkarian troops killed, over 720,000 rebels killed, and roughly 1.2 million citizens died amidst the brutal fighting. The Castovia administration was praised for ending the war but extensively blamed for the immense loss of life, both from the allied military coalition and the Vulkarian populace. Including the citizens, soldiers, and rebels, roughly 1 in every 30 Vulkarians died in the war. The final death toll with all combined sides in the five years of fighting was 2.1 million people. President Cassious Castovia faced brutal drops in his approval ratings when, on April 21st, 2006, a leaked document showed that Zamastan bombers had been the cause of thousands of civilian deaths during the battles, specifically at Amstelveen and Barneveld. As this became further clear, Castovia nearly lost his next election, but won his 11th term with an extremely close 50.032% of the vote.
Cassious Castovia’s son, Zacharias Castovia, spent time abroad to distance himself from his family. Born on election day (September 22nd) in 1990, he was raised within the elite of Zamastan’s first “family political dynasty”. However, his father was a busy politician and rarely spent time with him. Zacharias’ 18th birthday and his father’s 12th election victory in 2008 was spent flying out of Tofino International Airport to Los Angeles, California. He didn’t return to Zamastan for the next many years, and only made rare conversation with his father and mother. He spent most of his days creating a real-estate and construction firm in the United States and Canada, creating a massive fortune. His father won three more elections in 2010, 12’, and 14’, but in 2015 suddenly became ill. Perhaps the most consequential President up to that moment in history, Cassious Castovia passed away on December 5th, 2015, from his mysterious and sudden illness. He was 66 years old.
Zacharias Castovia Years
Zacharias Castovia attended his father's funeral on December 15th in Tofino. Standing next to his mother, members of his father’s cabinet, and world leaders, Castovia gave the eulogy for the highly respected leader. Though he had not returned with the intention to become the new leader of Zamastan, Zacharias was approached by his father’s advisors who wanted him to run in the emergency election. He reluctantly accepted, and in the week of elections, he won with 78% of the vote. Zacharias Castovia assumed the position of the 12th President of Zamastan on January 1st, 2016.
One of Castovia's principle goals was to revitalize the Zamastanian infrastructure, including Transport, Energy, and Education. On February 2nd, he appointed the secretaries to energy, education, and transportation (Madeline Essy, Larry Terrian, and India Maddox respectively) to utilize remnants of the Blanco Initiative to use government expenditures in jobs programs, which led to the increase of reliability for each department.
United Crown Alliance
On February 4th, 2018, Castovia brought together 12 nations into a formal alliance known as the United Crown Alliance, which operated on the basis of military security, economic prowess, and diplomatic formality. At its peak of 46 member states, the UCA operated as an efficient player on the world stage, with Zamastan serving as the World Assembly Delegate. Other member nations included Gladysynthia, Cadair, Vulkaria, and Novachronos. However efficient the alliance was, political differences and regime changes across many nations caused the eventual decision by President Zacharias Castovia to pull out of the alliance. One by one, other nations followed suit. Eventually, Zamastan joined the International Democratic Union.
On October 24th, 2018, the Gladysynthian vessel GMS Lockwood fired on the city of Lower Tariel on the Zamastan controlled Northern Isle. Though no one was injured, the attack was enough for Castovia to approve airstrikes on Gladysynthian airbases. The next day, a Zamastanian F-22 Raptor was shot down over Danaska during a sortie, and the pilot Yan Randolph was taken captive. Eventually, the conflict escalated to a much more violent all-out-war. Zamastanian troops invaded the city of Danaska, and held position for nearly a week. However, mounting casualties and unpopularity of the conflict back home led to Castovia's decision to retreat, with the condition that Gladysynthia cease hostilities on the Northern Isle, release pilot Randolph, and remove blockades. The conflict officially ended with a visit by Castovia to Mönusÿnthys to meet with Premiere Seswitch LaFlaunce. This was seen by many as the low point of Zacharias Castovia's Presidency, as over 400 Zamastanian troops were killed for a fight that ended up not producing any results and being relatively worthless.
On January 22nd, 2019, Castovia resigned from the presidency following the Delavian Bribery Scandal, which resulted in some congressmen and prominent business being arrested and charged, and though Castovia himself was cleared of any wrongdoing, the stain from the event had shaken his administration. An emergency election was held, and Anya Bishop was chosen with 53% of the vote to become the next President of Zamastan.
Anya Bishop Assumes the Presidency
Anya Bishop was elected President in a special emergency election to determine Castovia's replacement. Other nominees included Cain Blackwater and Yerran Mann, who combined won roughly 36% of the vote.
Anya Bishop Presidency
One of Anya's first acts was to solidify her position on the world stage, primarily through the 2019 Tofino Leaders Summit which saw several leaders and diplomats from around the IDU.
The waning days of March 2019 saw disastrous flooding in the prairie regions of Zamastan, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 people.
Following a series of deadly shootings in Zamastan, one of which killed 11 people in a nightclub, Bishop signed legislation passed 428-72 in the Congress that banned most kinds of semi-automatic rifle style weapons and initiated a buy-back program. This move was widely praised by nations such as Sanctaria and Laeral, which had their own gun control measures.
In June of 2019, journalists from the nation of Xiomera who had hidden in exile in Lauchenoiria, Laeral, and Zamastan, were the topic of an extradition crisis. Bishop denied the extradition of the journalists back to Xiomera and imposed sanctions on the nation. In response, the Xiomeran government did the same. Following a hack on Kerlile's national broadcasting service, Kerlile also imposed sanctions on Zamastan. The trade war continued into mid-september, when it finally died down after a mediation conference hosted by Eiria settled the dispute. Bishop was widely criticized for her role in the dispute, mostly for her reluctance to begin negotiations and her impulsive persistence to add more sanctions and tariffs as the dispute progressed.
On August 31st, a magnitude 8.3 earthquake struck the coastal valley region of Zamastan, devastating the city of Kelowna and killing over 4,300 people. The international community rallied behind Zamastan and assisted in rebuilding. This is widely considered by Zamastanian experts to be one of Bishop's most important moments of leadership, as she greatly dropped politics and went to work relating with the everyday Zamastanian and assisted in rescue relief.