History of Zamastan
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- 1 Pre-Imperial Colonization (10,000 B.C.E.-1700 A.D.)
- 2 18th Century
- 3 19th Century
- 4 Early 20th Century
- 5 Late 20th Century
- 6 Modern Day (2010-present)
Pre-Imperial Colonization (10,000 B.C.E.-1700 A.D.)
Human development and migration
Zamastan is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Iearth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation perhaps as early as 7 million years ago (BP=before present). Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to approximately 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3–1.4 million years BP) and Homo ergaster (c. 1.9 million–600,000 years BP) have been discovered.
After the evolution of Homo sapiens approximately 350,000 to 260,000 years BP in Zamastan, the continent of Euronia was mainly populated by groups of hunter-gatherers. These first modern humans left Zamastan and populated the rest of the globe during the Second Great Iearth Migration migration dated to approximately 50,000 years BP.
Over time, indigenous cultures in Zamastan grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the Catica First Nations (Kelowna) culture in the northwest, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies. The Kelowna culture flourished in the south from 800 to 1600 AD, extending from the Gladysynthian border down through Rio Palito. Its city state Kelowna is considered the largest, most complex pre-historical archaeological site in modern-day Zamastan.
In the east, the Kingdom of Mayotte formed with the collective federations of other kingdoms in 1200 AD. The Second Drambenburg Empire and the Kingdom of Mayotte fought the Fifty Years War from 1337-1389 due to each side claiming legitimate power over the palatinate of Aunistria. Aunistria was ultimately conquered by Drambenburg.
Navigators from Caspiaa, specifically the Caspmen, are credited with establishing the first foreign colonies in Zamastan, landing at Point Tarin, modern-day Shawville, Alberni, and Nanaimo. Explorers from Quetana were the first people from Adulan civilization to discover the Zamastanian mainland. Though widely disputed, it is believed that Quetanan explorer Percilius Qintanican landed on the shore of modern-day Landeda in 1321, while what would come to be known as Jade, Zian, and the Northern Isle were discovered by Trinatius Obenian in 1401, landing approximately at modern-day Huntington Park.
Skith Colonization (1704-1800)
The land that would come to be known as Zamastan was first colonized in 1704 by Percy Armillio, a Skithan national and explorer who stumbled upon the land inadvertently during one of his expeditions on behalf of the Skithan Empire. The Empire was a major world power at the time and was in the process of expanding its imperialist ambitions to the New World where they had already established multiple colonies in Quetana, Raviannas, and Rio Palito. Aboard Armillio's ship traveling with him were a crew of approximately 100 men brought along to assist Armillio upon landing near Kelowna as well as an additional hundred Ski'ah Highland slaves. The captive men were sent over from the Skithan mainland with the intended task of performing slave labor to assist in the construction of the colony in Zamastan.
Path to Independence
Representation in the Empire
Despite serving as the Skith Empire's largest and most economically productive colonies, the Zamastanian colonists recognized that they were not recieving treatment equal to their homeland Skith citizens. The colonists were not granted any right to elect their governors, colonists who were born in Skith were the only ones permitted to hold positions in finances, land holding, and slave holding. The colonists were taxed much heavier than that of their Skithan counterparts. Common people became insurgents against the Skith even though they were unfamiliar with the ideological rationales being offered. They held very strongly a sense of "rights" that they felt the Skith were deliberately violating – rights that stressed local autonomy, fair dealing, and government by consent. They were highly sensitive to the issue of tyranny, which they saw manifested by the arrival in Jade Harbor of the Skithan Imperial Army to punish the colonists in the city after the Fair Dealings Protest (1798). This heightened their sense of violated rights, leading to rage and demands for revenge, and they had faith that God was on their side.
The majority of Zamastanian-born colonists were in favor of abolition, as the upper-class elites who were Skithan-born were prominent slave holders. Over half of all Adulan and Nortuan immigrants to Colonial Zamastan arrived as indentured servants. Few could afford the cost of the journey to Euronia, and so this form of unfree labor provided a means to immigrate. Typically, people would sign a contract agreeing to a set term of labor, usually four to seven years, and in return would receive transport to Zamastan and a piece of land at the end of their servitude. In some cases, ships' captains received rewards for the delivery of poor migrants, and so extravagant promises and kidnapping were common. The White Rock Company and the Tarin Bay Company also used indentured servant labor.
The first slaves were brought to Zamastan from the imperial regions of Emmiria, Verdusa, Mulfulira, and Quetana in 1703, just one year after the founding of Tofino by Percy Armillio. Initially regarded as indentured servants who could buy their freedom, the institution of slavery began to harden and the involuntary servitude became lifelong as the demand for labor on tobacco and rice plantations grew in the 1760s. Slavery became identified with darker skin color, at the time seen as a "black race", and the children of slave women were born slaves (partus sequitur ventrem). By the 1790s, slaves comprised a third of the colonial population.
In the decades prior to the War of Independence, there were numerous slave rebellions. The most notable were the Gravets Slave Revolt (1767), the Reveneous Slave Revolt (1769), and the Fendericks Slave Revolt (1789), all of which failed and led to stronger control by the Skithan slave masters but an increased movement for abolition among the colonists.
Zamastan War of Independence (1802-1804)
The first shots of the Zamastanian Revolution were fired on July 17th, 1802, when a group of freed slaves and radical abolitionists led by Tomias Hapson and Avi Taures stormed the governor's mansion and raided the imperial armory in Tofino, which subsequently led to a massive riot breaking out across the city against the imperials. Word of the growing rebellion in Tofino, colonists across Zian, Jade, and Northern Isle began taking up arms in militias and factions, freeing slaves, and attacking Skith Imperial interests. Those who did not take up physical violence took to the streets in massive protests and demonstrations. Upon hearing the developments of the colony's insurrection, King Hang Almarez II sent General-Admiral John Grouseworth from Skith to reinforce overwhelmed forces in the region, seeking to eliminate communication between the rebel outposts and to capture or destroy the rebel forces based in the colonies.
By the summer of 1803, Zamah St'an had been almost completely overrun by rebel forces under the command of Henry Tiller and Thomas Pétion in the south. In the north of the country, the rebel forces under Hapson and Taures were isolated in the two large ports of Providence and Lower Tariel and a few smaller settlements. Grouseworth received orders from the Crown to abandon Kelowna to capture and fortify Providence following several escapes by rebel ships leaving the port. On June 18, the Skithan army departed Kelowna and moved north towards Providence, with the reinvigorated rebels in intercepting them. The two armies fought at Bonmuth Court House on June 28, with the rebels holding the field, greatly boosting morale and confidence.
Crucial in any Skithan attempt to gain control of the colony was the possession of a southern port to bring in supplies and men. To this end, the Skithans organized an expedition to establish a strong post somewhere in the southern end of the colony, and sent military leaders to recruit Loyalists in Jade Harbor. The expedition's departure from Skith was significantly delayed, and the Loyalist force that was recruited to meet it was decisively defeated in the Battle of Jason's Creek Bridge in late February 1803. In June 1803, Skith Governor Chico Pisano led an assault on Fort Crystal Green, but in a humiliating failure and disasterous loss, Pisano called off his campaign in the south, effectively giving the rebels solidified control of the region.
As losses mounted the next summer in the north, in addition to another loss at the Battle of White Rock in the Empire's attempt to retake White Rock and reestablish a presence in the south, King Almarez II ordered a halt on all shipments and settlement travel to and from the island colonies. On October 26th, 1804, Skithan General Eufalua met with Hapson to agree to an armistice, and on the 27th, the Skith left Tofino. Skithan morale had collapsed with the news that Hapson and Taures had taken Tofino, and Eufalua decided to abandon all of Zamah St'an, writing that the expedition had become such a complete disaster that withdrawal was the only sensible thing to do, even through he did not have the authority to do so. The Free State of Zamah St'an was established on October 28th, 1804, as the Skithan forces retreated. The War of Independence was the first successful colonial war of independence against a foreign power. Zamastanians had developed an ideology of republicanism and abolitionist attitudes towards slavery, and once the Skith were expelled, Tomias Hapson, a former slave himself, was declared the first President of Zamastan by his constituents.
The Hapson Age (1804-32)
Nationalists – most of them war veterans – organized in every established province (only Zian, Jade, and Northern Isle in 1807) and convinced Congressional Hall to call the Maple Canal Convention of 1807. Hapson, Taures, and founding fathers such as Henry Tiller, Thomas Pétion, and others constructed the Constitution of Zamastan, which laid the foundations of the government institutions and civil liberties of the nation, ultimately creating a much more powerful and efficient central government, one with a strong president (Hapson was officially elected in the first national election in 1808), and powers of taxation and military service.
Hapson's nearly two decades of undertakings saw a major expansion of Zamastan's borders, as well as a massive industrial boom. The colonies of Jurrania, governed by former Skith commanders and generals, were conquered in 1807 in the Jurrania War. In 1824, Pahl was annexed with the Pahlan Purchase of 1824, which paid the Empire of Gladysynthia Z$400 million to allow for the territory, more than doubling Zamastan's size. Hapson's assassination in 1821 was followed by Avi Taures' assention to the Presidency, and he propelled Zamastan into a further decade of economic prosperity.
Taures became suddenly and mysteriously ill in 1828, and his death on the 17th of May and the appointment of George O'Galvin as President raised serious alarm about the possibility of continued tyrannical trends if Presidents had the ability to name successors upon a life-threatening sickness and death, as Tomias Hapson had talked about Taures being his replacement long before his unforeseen assassination. Another concern raised was the takeover of political parties, as Hapson and Taures had been self-declared independents while O'Galvin was a member of the newly established Blue Conservative Party. An amendment was added to the Constitution in December of 1828, stating that upon a President's death, incapacitation, or removal from office, a week-long emergency election cycle would be held in order to keep a steady and continuous democracy for whoever would assume the presidency.
O'Galvin undertook the responsibility inherited to him by President Taures, which was to continue the expansion of the Zamastanian territory. Moulins, which would later be called Redeemer’s Land, was purchased in 1831. O'Galvin, a scientist himself, supported expeditions to explore and map the new domain of the interior of Zamastan, most notably the Harrison Expedition which charted into Pahl and over the Louise Mountains to reach the Toyana Ocean in Titania. O'Galvin believed deeply in republicanism and argued it should be based on the independent farmer and planter; he distrusted cities, factories and banks. He also distrusted the federal government and judges, and tried to weaken the judiciary. However he met his match in Marvin Tauriana, the founder of the Liberal Party from Arinals. Although the Constitution specified a Supreme Court, its functions were vague until Tauriana, who was appointed by Hapson to be the Chief Justice (1804–38), defined them, especially the power to overturn acts of Congress or states that violated the Constitution in the landmark Parkins v. Rancher decision of 1831.
The Expansion Age (1832-68)
O'Galvin was defeated in the 1832 election to Zane Perrin, the first Liberal party candidate to become President. In 1833, Perrin proclaimed Zamastan's opinion that Adulan powers should no longer colonize or interfere in the Euronian continent. This was a defining moment in the foreign policy of Zamastan. The Perrin Doctrine was adopted in response to Zamastanian fears over Skithan expansion into the Eastern Hemisphere, although by the 1830s the Skithan Empire was on the decline, leaving their colonies in Rio Palito, Ossinia, and mainland Ruskayn. Part of the Perrin Doctrine initially put emphasis on Zamastanian superiority over their neighbors, largely through military power, though over the next decade it shifted towards a supremacy in economic policy and international trade being strengthened between Zamastan and her neighbors.
The election of BCP member Quintus Belisarius to the Presidency in 1836 solidified a political dynamic in the country as liberals and conservatives vied for power in each election cycle. 1839 saw the Providence Uprisings, which were a series of often bloody attempted revolutions led by the workers of Providence, Northern Isle, against a conservative turn in government. On May 6th, 1839, workers in Providence formed barricades and attempted to seize the Governor's home, but they were suppressed by provincial forces. The riot escalated into violence, and hundreds of workers and soldiers alike were killed. Caius Aebutius, a liberal elected in 1840 widely thanks to the support of workers and peasants, pressed progressive reforms including suggesting greater protections and wages for workers, immigration statuses, the abolishment of temperance, and extended voting rights to women, who were not originally guarenteed the right to vote in the Constitution. Women were granted the right to vote on October 6th, 1840, which guarenteed that every Zamastanian citizen could participate in the democracies of the nation.
Eastern expansion was at the forefront of Zamastanian policy on the frontier, with settlers and army scouts often making homesteads on lands that had not been claimed officially by the federal government. Often times, settlers and explorers would come into conflict with native kingdoms, such as in the case of the Senolan Wars. People also sought their fortune in the many gold and silver rushes that occured in Eastern Pahl and what is now Western Titania. In 1850, Zamastan was victorious against Kingdom of Lousianian in the Louise Mountains War and as a result President Kingston Parker annexed their territory. The annexation placed Zamastan's borders at that of the Kingdom of Mayotte, which had been conquered by the Empire of Paraboca, as well as Zamastan's first direct connection to the Toyana Ocean, effectively connecting the continental peninsula's two coasts.
From the early 1830s to 1868, the Titania Trail to the east and its many offshoots were used by over 1,300,000 settlers. Gold hunters, ranchers, farmers, and entrepreneurs and their families headed to Titania, Northern Alutia, and other points in the far east. Wagon-trains took five or six months on foot; after 1868, the trip took 6 days by rail. President David Goddard, who served from 1850-58, gave credit lends to rail, oil, and commercial companies in order to press business further towards the Eastern coast. The cities of Titania, Blythe, and Aurelia became new economic centers despite their geological displacement from the Western and Central economic and population hubs of the nation.
The Parabocan War (1871-1876)
As the manifestation of the expanse and settling of the east by Zamastanians continued in the 1850s and 60s, the Empire of Paraboca, which had recently annexed the Kingdom of Mayotte, and settlers came into occassional conflict with one another. President Elliott North in 1861 ordered Zamastanian troops to mass around the as of yet undeclared border on the frontier, which provoked the 1862 Battle of Joanah Ranch where Zamastanian settlers, soldiers, and Parabocan troops exchanged gunfire and dozens were killed. In response, the Empire began massing troops in the Mayotte region, threatening to invade Zamastan if the continued inhabitation of the newly annexed land broke into Parabocan lands. North ceased the military activity in the region, but settlers continued to create their homesteads and grow settlements in the area. Emperor Cardoza III, recognizing that the threat of the Zamastanian military had pulled away, decided that the annoyance of Zamastanian settlers would have to be a regular disturbance that he wouldn't act on for the sake of maintaining a relatively stable empire.
The dynamic greatly shifted in 1867 when President Bryson Woodward further encouraged farming and ranching in the new frontier, with these activities often times crossing into the imperial territory. This further angered the empire, especially Emperor Cardoza IV (III's son who inherited power after his father's assassination in 66'), who began issuing bounties to Parabocan homesteaders who were able to kill Zamastanian army officials and present the heads of their victims to their regional offices. This practice, known as the Cardoza Bounties, resulted in over 200 army commanders and soldiers being killed in ambush style attacks on the frontier, causing newly elected President William Castovia in 1869 to declare Paraboca "the great enemy", and resentment between the two powers continued to grow over the next year as attacks and rhetoric continued.
On January 5th, 1871, the Empire of Paraboca invaded Zamastan through occupied Chanchajilla and Mayotte in a full-out assault. Zamastan and President Castovia were woefully untested in conventional war and were caught off guard, relying heavily on large-scale attacks and even Ruskaynian mercenaries to help fend off the invading forces. The Parabocans swept through the frontier, torching towns and massacring settlements as they went. At the Battle of Foreman City (1871), the whole city was seiged and thousands of Zamastanian forces and civilians starved to death. By the end of 1871, the Parabocans had stormed over the Louise Mountains and into the Pahlan Plain, stalling at the beginning of the winter but hunkering down just outside Emerald, Alanis, and Glades. By the spring of 1872, the Zamastanian army was able to win its first major victory at the Battle of Revelstroke when an army led by General Baudouin Charbonneau broke through the Parabocan seige of the valley and sent them into a retreat for the first time since the war began.
The bulk of the continuing years of the war were prolonged battles with both sides trying to push the other back. 1873 and 74 saw massive territorial reclaimation gains by Zamastanian forces, pushing the Parabocans into the Louise Mountains and into the Mayotte and Titanian forested expanses. Battles quickly became less concentrated and conventional, where large field brigades turned into isolated and spread out fighters fighting insurgent style, using hit and run tactics to put devestating losses against the retreating Parabocans. At the Battle of Antirault, the Parabocan leadership recognized that the empire would be lost if they continued to fight conventionally, and decided to enact a front-wide tactical retreat and fortify the interior highlands. General Charbonneau was killed during the Battle of Antirault, causing the command of the Zamastanian forces to fall to General Philippe Portier.
By 1875, the Parabocans had been pushed entirely out of Mayotte, with Zamastan helping install a new government in the former Kingdom that helped develop forces to combat the Parabocans. At this point, President Castovia and the Zamastanian people had been relishing in their decisive victories and the war cabinet overwhelmingly wanted to keep pursuing the Parabocans in their retreat. In the summer of 1875, Zamastanian and Mayottean troops, alongside Ruskayn divisions, swarmed north into Chanchajilla, crushing the Parabocans who did not anticipate the length the Zamastanians were willing to take the fight. On July 9th, 1875, Zamastanian troops seized the city of Vilanja, with the capture of Ivora two days later marking the end of Parabocan occupation of Chanchajilla.
General Portier wanted to continue the war further by pushing into the Parabocan homeland valley and capturing their capital, though President Castovia urged against it. Many generals were convinced by Portier's ambition and remarked that the possibilities for economic, political, and patriotic gains that could be unlocked were worth the additional effort. Castovia eventually agreed, and in the spring of 1876, the coalition forces invaded the Parabocan valley. On May 17th, the capital of Cardoza fell, and Emperor Cardoza IV surrendered his forces for the terms of keeping the throne as a symbolic position only. Zamastanian forces then began a nearly 6-year-long occupation of Paraboca, working to dismantle the imperial structure of the nation.
The Parabocan War, also known as the Great Cardoza War was the world's earliest industrial war. Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively. The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed the impact of industrialization in the Chanchajillan Civil War. The war tested Zamastan's small army by promoting the first draft of soldiers and the concern of being conquered by a foreign power. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers were killed during the war, and the death toll for civilians in Zamastan was also staggering, as the Parabocan soldiers were notoriously violent. When the war ended, Paraboca went into political upheaval and turmoil, leading to the collapse of the nation in 1879, three years after the war ended. Paraboca would remain in a state of civil disarray and conflict until 1910, when they federalized their government and reorganized, including establishing diplomatic relations with their neighboring countries.
Post-War Age (1876-1900)
The victory and territorial expansion following the war William Castovia envisioned inspired great patriotism in Zamastan, but the war and treaty drew some criticism in Zamastan for their casualties, monetary cost, and heavy-handedness, particularly in the later stages of the war when the Parabocan armies had began their retreat. Mayotte became part of Zamastan's territory following the war in 1876. Following the war, many GLP members wanted Zamastan to annex the entirity of Chanchajilla and Paraboca, but this idea was shut down due to the massive issues that would follow with incorporating tens of millions of new citizens, reconstructing entire economies, and the unrest that would ensue. In the end, Mayotteans were granted citizenship with their annexation and a hard border was created between Zamastan and Chanchajilla.
President Castovia decided not to run for reelection in 1882, leading to the election of Solomon Stewart, a staunch proponent for expansion. In 1881, Castovia's last term in office, the Kingdom of Tregueux was annexed with overwhelming liberal support, and two years later the Kingdom of Verdesia was also annexed. These two territorial gains gave Zamastan complete territorial control of southwest Euronia and a commanding coastline on the Toyana Ocean stretching from Titania to the Quetana Pass.
The Post-war period of the late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion of Zamastanian wealth and prosperity, underscored by the mass corruption in the government. Reforms of the Age included the Civil Attributes Act, which mandated a competitive examination for applicants for government jobs. Other important legislation included the All-Provincial Commerce Act, which ended railroads' discrimination against small shippers, and the Bellevue Antitrust Act, which outlawed monopolies in business. Despite the extensive economic developments of this age, it was corrupted by such elements as land speculators, scandalous politics, and unethical business practices.
By 1890, Zamastanian industrial production and per capita income exceeded those of all other world nations. In response to heavy debts and decreasing farm prices, wheat and cotton farmers joined the Democratic-Socialist Party. An unprecedented wave of immigration from Adula served to both provide the labor for Zamastanian industry and create diverse communities in previously undeveloped areas. From 1880 to 1914, peak years of immigration, more than 22 million people migrated to Zamastan. Most were unskilled workers who quickly found jobs in mines, mills, and factories. Many immigrants were craftsmen (especially from Skith and Emmiria) bringing human skills, and others were farmers (especially from Austrolis and Cadair) who purchased inexpensive land on the Prairies from railroads who sent agents to Adula. Poverty, growing inequality and dangerous working conditions, along with socialist and anarchist ideas diffusing from Adulan immigrants, led to the rise of the labor movement, which often included violent strikes.
Early 20th Century
Golden Age (1900-1934)
In 1904, Arbery Jacob Henderson achieved the first heavier-than-air flight in a motor-powered airplane. The Verdusa crisis of 1907 saw President Thomas Dubois impose a naval blockage against Verdusa from April 8th to November 6th, 1907, after the government of Verdusa refused to pay foreign debts and damages suffered by Zamastanian citizens in recent civil wars. In 1911, a collective of 2 rogue army generals and roughly a hundred followers attempted to overthrow the government of President Jean Levasseur and install a military regime, but were defeated.
Natural disasters, such as the 1923-24 Pahlan Drought, which killed over 15,000 people, and the 1919 Tofino Earthquake, which killed over 500,000 people, threw Zamastan's cultural perspective into a new light of social unity. President Hawk Gardner introduced the nation's first refugee acceptance program, leading to mass immigration to Zamastan in the early 20th century.
The Blanco Initiative, The Chanchajillan Civil War, and the 1934-41 Economic Crisis
Rapid economic development sponsored by President Elias Blanco's Blanco Initiative fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Frank Rabernath led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with Arinals Bank playing a notable role. Zamastan undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting, and revolutionized the automotive industry. The economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and Zamastan achieved great power status. These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements. This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions. In addition, a major market crash in the form of the 1934-41 economic crisis threw Zamastan's economic balance into limbo at the turn of the 1930s-40s, leading to a shift towards a liberal institution in the election of President Tyler Kordia.
In the midst of the volatile economic standing of the nation, the nation of Chanchajilla in 1932 experienced a violent military coup after a declaration of military opposition against the socialist controlled government by a group of republican generals of the Chanchajillan Republican Armed Forces, originally under the leadership of Gonzal Jimoth. The government at the time was a coalition of communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of far-left President Manuel Besterio and supported by military units in some important cities in the Eastern half of Chanchajilla — such as Vilanja, Mirinu, and Pretesia. This left Chanchajilla militarily and politically divided. The Republicans and the Socialist government fought for control of the country. The Republican forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from Zamastan, while the socialist side received support from Gladysynthia and Drambenburg. Tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict. They fought mostly in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which also included several thousand exiles from pro-socialist regimes.
The republican forces of East Chanchajilla officially won the war, which ended in 1944, by achieving their ultimate goal of separating from the Western government and forming their own nation. Once the hostilities ended, the government of West Chanchajilla declared the militarization and hard border separation from the newly organized Eastern government. The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides.
President Kordia's policies surrounding taking economic-advantages from raw resources led to the seven-day Danaska War in 1945. Gladysynthia had recently broken apart from its imperial reign and had newly formulated into a Republic, but was faced with the war path from President Kordia and his ambition was to conquer the oil rich territory of the Northern Isle and the Danaska region. As the Premiere of Gladysynthia, Laurence Clarkson, rallied his troops, tensions became dangerously heightened. In addition, the Chanchajillan Civil War, which ended a year earlier, furthered the separation between the two nations as Zamastan supported the republican nationalists and Gladysynthia supporting socialists. On August 2nd, Zamastan launched what it claimed were a series of preemptive airstrikes against Gladysynthian airfields. The Gladysynthians were caught by surprise, and nearly the entire Gladysynthian air force was destroyed with few Zamastan losses, giving the Zamastanians air supremacy. Simultaneously, the Zamastanians launched a ground offensive into the city of Danaska and Tariel Heights, which again caught the Gladysynthians by surprise. After some initial resistance, Gladysynthian leader Laurence Clarkson ordered the evacuation of Danaska. Zamastan forces rushed westward in pursuit of the Gladysynthians, inflicted heavy losses, and conquered the Danaska region.
Gladysynthia agreed to a joint ceasefire on August 9th. In the aftermath of the war, Zamastan had crippled the Gladysynthian military, having killed over 20,000 troops while only 3,000 of its own were lost. The Zamastan success was the result of a well-prepared and enacted strategy, the unprepared leadership of the Gladysynthian states, and their poor military leadership and strategy. Zamastan seized Danaska and the Tariel Heights from Gladysynthia. The speed and ease of Zamastan's victory would later lead to a dangerous overconfidence within the ranks of the Zamastan Defense Forces (ZDF), contributing to initial Gladysynthian successes in the subsequent Tariel War, although ultimately Zamastanian forces were successful and defeated the Gladysynthian military. The displacement of civilian populations resulting from the war would have long-term consequences, as 300,000 people fled Danaska and about 100,000 Zamastanians left the Tariel Heights to become refugees.
Late 20th Century
Marvin Gaviria, elected President in 1946, is considered to be one of the most popular presidents in the history of Zamastan, overseeing a flourishing economy during a tumultuous time in history. His strong economic stances against communism including crippling sanctions propelled the nation into the new world with new jobs programs and a uniquely revitalized education system. The President was also known for his endeavors on the international stage in diplomacy, creating some of the first ever trade connections with other nations such as Vulkaria, Tinten, and Cadair.
Despite his pursuits of peace, Gaviria was forced to send Zamastanian forces to assist Avergnon in 1949 when the Empire of Drambenburg invaded their allies and began brutal bombing campaigns of major civilian areas. The early stage of the war was slowly and grueling, as each side was unable to gain major advances of territory and resorted to intense tit-for-tat campaigns against civilian populations, such as the razing of Titania during a Drambenburgian firebombing raid on October 19th, 1949. Eventually Drambenburg shifted their tactics to the Toyana Ocean, where they targeted shipping vessels of neutral nations in an attempt to deter nations from entering what was Grand Kaiser Geoff III von Wettin's strive for an expansive territorial empire. This ultimately backfired, bringing Quetana, Albarine, Caspiaa, East Besmenia, and Emmiria into the war on Zamastan and Avergnon's side, which would be known as the "Allies". Drambenburg's allies, which included Barangadesh, Styrae, and Rumaztria, were known as the League.
The main contributions of Zamastan to the Allied war effort comprised money, industrial output, food, petroleum, technological innovation, and (especially 1951-1954) military personnel. Much of the focus in Tofino was maximizing the economic output of the nation. The overall result was a dramatic increase in GDP, the export of vast quantities of supplies to the Allies and to Zamastanian forces both fighting along the Drambenburg and Avergnon borders and overseas, the end of unemployment, and a rise in civilian consumption even as 40% of the GDP went to the war effort. This was achieved by tens of millions of workers moving from low-productivity occupations to high-efficiency jobs, improvements in productivity through better technology and management, and the move into the active labor force of students, retired people, housewives, and the unemployed, and an increase in hours worked.
Upon the addition of the Dominion of the Sanguine Church in the conflict in 1950, Zamastanian and East Chanchajillan forces were able to create a new battlefront, which allowed for eased fighting for the Avergnonians. However, the DSC and Rumaztria, both League Powers, swept into the Allied nation of Vulkaria, nearly completely capturing the nation and threatening vital supply routes through the Vulkarian Pass.
Zamastanian armies participated in the liberation of Vulkaria from the DSC and Rumaztria in 1952-1953 during Operation Pelican Spanning alongside Vulkarian, Emmirian, and Ruskaynian troops. Landing on both ends of the country, Zamastanian forces fought back Sanguine fighters in the north and contingents of Rumaztrians in the south, with Ruskaynians reinforcing in the north and Emmirians to the south. The fighting in Vulkaria was particularly devestating, with the Battle of Sennepal alone costing more than 20,000 lives. By the spring of 1953, Rumaztrian forces had been fully expelled from the southern end of the nation and signed an armistace, effectively dropping out of the war and ending one of three fronts. In June, the DSC was defeated in Vulkaria and two months later in August on the Eastern Front, also signing an armistace and ending the conflict in Vulkaria and Eastern Avergnon. The only battle zones left were now limited to Drambenburgian controlled territory.
The final invasion of Drambenburg began in January of 1954, which saw some of the most violent fighting in the conflict. The final member of the League Powers ultimately surrendered on November 12th, 1954, with the condition that the allied forces spare the capital of Lerbin. 289,430 Zamastanians were killed during the course of the war and over 859,044 were wounded, making it the second-deadliest war in national history after the Parabocan War. Aunistria was annexed by Zamastan after the war.
The Cold War
Capitalist vs Communist
Directly following the war, research and development took flight, best seen in the Orion Project, a secret effort to harness nuclear fission to produce highly destructive atomic bombs. The first nuclear weapon in history was detonated by the Zamastanians on May 7th, 1956, in the Orion-1 near Abagene, Pahl. This started a global arms and influence race, especially as the rise of communism began to take root in Ausiana in the nations of Beleroskov and Yuan. Zamastan poured trillions into rebuilding Avergnon and Vulkaria, helping the former Allied Powers, while they struggled to keep up with the growing influence of Beleroskov. The Beleroskovians helped rebuild Drambenburg, leading to it once again becoming a regional power by the end of the 1960s. Zamastanian foreign policy during the 1950s-80s was built around the support of capitalist Allied Powers along with the policy of containment, stopping the spread of communism. In 1958, Zamastan replaced piecemeal financial aid programs with a comprehensive Gelletts Plan, which pumped money into the economy of the Allies, and removed trade barriers, while modernizing the managerial practices of businesses and governments.
The race to get into space also was a key development during the Cold War. During the World War in 1950, Drambenburg had sent the first satellite, Sattelit-1, into space. It was not a functional satellite and only completed two orbits of the Earth before reentry, but it showed the potential of conquering space. By the time of the Cold War, the capitalists and communists were in a heated locked contest for dominence of space technology. Zamastan gained an edge on August 6th, 1957, when the first long-term satellite, Cyan-1, was launch into space. More victories followed in June 6th, 1962, when the Marri-1 launch put the first Zamastanian astronauts, Casey Giverston and Demarcus Free, into space. A setback occured in 1970 when a joint-Beleroskov and Drambenburgian rover was landed on the moon, but ultimately Zamastan claimed victory in the space race on June 3rd, 1972, when they became the first country to land humans on the Moon, with Blue Falcon 3 and astronauts John Bennett, Vincent Steward, and Edward Wood Chambers being the first to walk on the lunar surface.
Coalition of Crown Albatross and Social Change
Following the World War, President Gaviria also oversaw military operations in the Pahl Region of Zamastan, where the military fought small pockets of pro-communist insurgents. In 1970, Gaviria was faced with a sudden and sporadic outbreak of fighting in the Tariel War (also known as the Second Danaska War), seeing the Zamastanian Armed Forces pitted against the invading Gladysynthian forces. Premiere Duncan Thomas had sent his reguvinated forces in a full-scale attack into north western Zamastan in an attempt to take back the Northern Isle territory they lost in the First Danaska War. They pushed Zamastanian forces back across the Danaska River and to the outskirts of Lower Tariel, where fighting stalled until a ceasefire was declared a few weeks later. The effects of the Tariel War led to long simmering tensions against the Gladysynthians that would occassionally result in sporadic and violent border disputes.
On September 29th, seven days after he was elected to his 13th term, Marvin Gaviria was assassinated during a speech at Congressional Hall in Tofino, and Elene Abotsford was elected as the first female-President of Zamastan. Abotsford proposed and created an international organization known as the Coalition of Crown Albatross. At home, Zamastan experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an corss-provincial highway system transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades under the presidencies of Aiden Avery and Quinn Werner. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination against religious intolerance and sexual-identification movements. However, the later half of the 1970s, 1976 in particular, was marked by the 1976 Barangadesh hostage crisis, the refugee crisis caused by the 1976 Vulkaria Earthquake, the Helios Island nuclear accident, and the shootdown of Zian Airways Flight 127 by Beleroskov. In response to the shootdown, President Abotsford escalated the tensions with the Ausiana communist powers, including Yuan, further when she ended détente, imposed a grain embargo against Beleroskov, and led a boycott against the 1976 Koyevka World Cup.
The sudden death of President Damian Lorrie in 1982 put Cassious Castovia in the Presidency. Though most of his first official duties as President for the first quarter of his first term (6 months) were merely social issues, the Supreme Court and the Congressional members of the government discussed a growing trend in the global community – that of legalizing gay marriage. The LGBT community around the world had started gaining momentum, specifically in the fact that laws outlawing homosexuality were being abolished in many C.C.A. nations such as Quetana, Rio Palito, and Austrolis around the 1980s. On June 4th, 1983, Castovia signed a bill that allowed for individual counties to allow their own passage of same-sex marriage. This was a hotly disputed act, but it progressed Zamastan’s social climate further towards the adapting world.
Under President Castovia, Zamastan sent troops across the world in various roles to either aide or assist allied forces in what they deemed essential conflicts, such as during the Verdusa Civil War, the Jaginistan Civil War, and the Chezian War (1992-95).
The Vulkarian Wars
The First War in Vulkaria, at the time known simply as the Vulkarian War was a military conflict in the nation of Vulkaria. A coup d'etat that installed a capitalist government in 1982 faced violent retaliation by the splinter groups of the old Marxist regime known as the Malvarian Liberation Front. Following the 1983 Alanis Pride Parade Bombing and several other terror attacks in Zamastan, the government of Zamastan under President Castovia sent in a fighting force to help the government of Prime Minister Eugenia Charles destroy the M.L.F.. The nearly 8 year long war ended with the Malvarian terrorists fleeing the country in a sudden exodus.
Following the events of the First War in Vulkaria and the sporadic protests and violence that persisted throughout the next decade, a government policy regarding capitalist and global economics installed in 1999 led to a revitalization of the M.L.F. and many other embattled groups wanting to take over power from the federal government in order to install a Marxist regime. A civil war erupted in 2000 once again, and the nation was embroiled with global interests once again being threatened in the form of trade along the Elkjop Bay and the Strait of Vulkaria shipping routes, as well as the threat of terror attacks being experienced by many of the nations involved in the coalition efforts.
President Castovia sent troops into Vulkaria once again in 1999 to aid the Vulkarian government, and in 2000, the international coalition joined the fight. The war ended in 2005 with the surrender of rebel forces and a signed treaty by the Federal forces and Coalition observers to allow small territorial governance by M.L.F. and V.N.A. forces.
The Second War in Vulkaria was staggering in terms of the death toll, with over 2.3 million people killed, over half of them citizens. Vulkaria lost over 103,000 soldiers. The Coalition forces lost a total of 7,153 troops.
Modern Day (2010-present)
The province of Mayotte underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of 2011-12, giving birth to a secular nationalist movement. The radical Front de libération du Mayotte (FLM) ignited the August Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970 and the sovereignist Mayottean Party was elected in 2011, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 2012. Attempts to accommodate Mayotte nationalism constitutionally through the Louise Lake Accord failed, leading to the formation of the Bloc Mayotte in Mayotte and the invigoration of the Reform Party in the West. A second referendum followed in 2013, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent. In 2014, the Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by an Administrative District would be unconstitutional and the Clarity of Provincial Secession Act was passed by Congressional Hall, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Republic. On May 9th, 2020, the provinces of Mayotte and Aunistria passed a autonomy-grant referendum that gave the two provinces substantial autonomy from the federal government. The decision, which came within 84,000 votes, was extremely controversial as there were suspicions of vote tampering, and as many nationalist members of both provincial legislatures tried to pass drafts that would have declared independence.
President Castovia died of Brugeda Syndrome on December 5th, 2015, leading to an emergency election in which his son. Zacharias Castovia, assumed the presidency. A series of terrorist attacks in Zamastan reinvigorated tensions with insurgent forces in Vulkaria and now Malvare, leading to Castovia's decision to fully sanction Malvare. On October 24th, 2018, the Gladysynthian vessel GMS Lockwood fired on the city of Lower Tariel on the Zamastan controlled Northern Isle. Though no one was injured, the attack was enough for Castovia to approve airstrikes on Gladysynthian airbases. Eventually, the conflict escalated to a much more violent all-out-war. Zamastanian troops invaded the city of Danaska, and held position for nearly a week. However, mounting casualties and unpopularity of the conflict back home led to Castovia's decision to retreat, with the condition that Gladysynthia cease hostilities on the Northern Isle, release prisoners, and remove blockades. The Third Danaska War officially ended with a visit by Castovia to Mönusÿnthys to meet with Premiere Seswitch LaFlaunce. This was seen by many as the low point of Zacharias Castovia's Presidency, as over 400 Zamastanian and 700 Gladysynthian troops were killed for a fight that ended up not producing any changes in policy and being relatively worthless.
On January 22nd, 2019, Castovia resigned from the presidency following the Delavian Bribery Scandal, which resulted in some congressmen and prominent business being arrested and charged, and though Castovia himself was cleared of any wrongdoing, the stain from the event had shaken his administration. An emergency election was held, and Anya Bishop became President. During her presidency, she oversaw a period of economic downturn for which she was blamed by both sides of the political spectrum. Bishop famously lashed out against liberal party members who criticized her on her policies. The 2019 Coastal Valley Earthquake, which killed over 4,300, mostly in the city of Kelowna, surfaced a major delay in the response of Bishop's administration to the recovery process. In a rare moment that Bishop's government produced bipartisanship, however, they were able to pass legislation that banned the ownership of semi-automatic weapons in Zamastan following the Tirzah Nightclub Shooting that killed 13 people.
Bishop's approval rating had hit the lowest of any Zamastanian president, simmering around 27% in August. Her response to the Copreus leaks in October, which disclosed among other things the Zamastanian Intelligence Service's coverup of the assassination of Marvin Gaviria, the survalliance of Zamastanian citizens overseas, and assassination of Gabriel Duchemin in 2007, was to blame Liberal politicians of attempting to "overthrow" her presidency "in a silent coup which compromised national security". These remarks ultimately led to continued outcry from citizens to hold an emergency election to replace Bishop. Following an order in which she dispatched military forces against protesters, she was condemned by both the Congress Chamber and the Senate and was then voted out of office through a vote of no-confidence. An emergency election followed, putting Speaker of the Chamber Foley Sakzi in power.
On November 24th, only a week after Sakzi assumed the presidency, the 3rd Fleet was intercepted by the Yuaneze navy off the coast of Gangkou in what experts believed was a show of force against the new President. In response, Sakzi commented that Xi Jingyi, the President of Yuan, was a "gross abuser of human rights," and that Yuan's claims to Gankou "evaporated with the Treaty of Tiaking in 1905." This resulted in several nations rallying behind Zamastan as a Coalition of Crown Albatross committee was formed to investigate possible human rights abuses by Yuan in Dasmistan.
Sakzi's administration took advantage of the Zamastanian Intelligence Service extensively with the leadership of Kirk Faulkman, which resulted in mixed reactions. Reactions were particularly negative when it came to the extent of assassinations they carried out. In February, Sakzi revealed that the Z.I.S. was behind the assassination of West Chanchajillan general Derick'a Baana in response to the televised executions of hundreds of dissidents during that nation's coup attempt days prior. In March, a Z.I.S.-backed mission with the Vulkarian Armed Forces located and killed Van'a Kamoni, the leader of the Malvarian Liberation Front. While these undertakens were largely praised, criticism came with the killing of terror leader Bryn Matteo which resulted in the collateral deaths of his family and several innocent civilians along with him. The Z.I.S. was also put under criticism after the detaining of secret agent Jocelyn Beaumanoir by Beleroskov, and a prisoner exchange had to be undertaken.
Beginning in April 2020, a series of naval detainings and missile attacks on international vessels prompted heightened tensions between Zamastan and Ossinia in the Ossinia Sea. On May 15th, dozens of ORNF speed boats harrased the ZMS Maple Wind in Zamastanian territorial waters in a move called "dangerous and provocative" and "increased the risk of miscalculation and collision" by the Zamastanian Naval Forces. A missile attack occured the next day on the ZMS August Vendetta, killing seven sailors and increasing hostilities even further. A Zamastanian container ship, the MV Galen Schulz, was struck by a missile the day following, suffering fatal breaches in the ship's hull that caused it to eventually sink. When Secretary-General of the C.C.A., Katherine von Wettin, removed Ossinia's seat in the General Assembly, Congressional Hall granted Sakzi with expanded military powers to act against Ossinia. On May 24th, Zamastan invaded Ossinia, rapidly knocking out its military capacity in less than 24 hours. The capital of Périnnois was occupied, and President Martin Saint-Yves was captured by Zamastanian forces on May 27th. He was taken back to Zamastan and tried alongside other members of the regime in the Tregueux Trials. Zamastanian forces remained in an occupational capacity until July 31st, when the interim Ossinia government under Nolan Riveau took power.
2020 Election and Foreign Policy Crisis
In July and August of 2020, Zamastan experienced numerous major foreign policy crisises that began to shake the Sakzi administration. While Sakzi had announced on June 15th that he would not seek reelection to the Presidency, these developments harmed the election campaign of the conservative party's hopeful successor Sabine Armitage. On July 2nd, the Zamastanian consulate in Haruya, Jaginistan, was subjected to an attack by the terror group Al-Fijar, killing Ambassador Jamie Lake and 8 other Zamastanians. In July, the nation of Syraranto collapsed into a state of civil war following a bombing in Covijo targeting President Kyriakos Tasoulas and numerous protests were violently put down. President Sakzi's plea to Tasoulas and his allies, Yuan and Beleroskov, went ignored. This, along with the Jurrania Shore Oil Spill which contaminated the shores of Zamastan, Caspia, Rio Palito, and Ruskayn, contributed to a loss of faith in the Zamastanian public in conservative leadership, leading to the election of Atticus Moreau in the 2020 Zamastan presidential election and the end of nearly 38 years of consecutive BCP administrations.
The successive Atticus Moreau administration following the conclusion of the 2020 Zamastan presidential election promised not to send ground forces into the West Nortua-Chezian Region to interfere in the Second Syraranto Civil War. However, President Moreau met with W.E.D.A. leaders in private on September 25th in Vongane, Quetana, to discuss possible intervention covertly to support the rebels, trying to avoid the overt risk of drawing an expanded conflict into Syraranto while also stopping any possible humanitarian disaster from evolving out of control. Additional threats by the terrorist group Al-Fijar were of concern following the bombing of Air Andaluni Flight 553. President Callum MacTavish of Ruskayn had urged Moreau to assemble routine relief supply missions to Syraranto to be airdropped into heavily affected rebel areas. Moreau and Secretary of State Jessiah Vallotis arranged a meeting with North Icadanian Chancellor Gianni Roussilis and Vuswistani President Panagiotakis Nicolalis to use their airspace to fly sorties into Syraranto. From September 30th to October 6th, Zamastanian crews aboard Vuswistani planes flew over Syraranto from North Icadania and dropped over 400,000 tons of supplies; mostly food and medical, into Western Syraranto. The Zamastanian Intelligence Service killed Al-Fijar leader Mukhtar Babu Ubair in an airstrike on September 29th, 2020, but multiple retaliatory attacks by the group such as the 2020 Olivar Street Bombing and the VMS Confianca Bombing occured shortly afterwards.
On October 7th, 2020, delegates from regional countries and observer nations gathered in Tyrnatini, Vuswistan, for the Tyrnatini I Peace Talks. The aim of the C.C.A.-backed talks were to find a discernable peace settlement between the Syraranto government and the rebel forces. Civilian casualties had reached over 30,000 dead by October, making the war one of the most devestating modern conflicts for the rate of casualties among civilians. The conflict raged without end in sight for months, until the Tyrnatini II Peace Talks on March 1st, 2021, established a semi-effective ceasefire. Fighting and casualties slowed dramatically, but the war continued in low-scale fighting. The effects of the war spilled into North Icadania as Chancellor Roussilis refused to lift martial law restrictions and plunged the country into civil unrest, to which Moreau ordered the recall of the ambassador to North Icadania.
Independence of Mayotte, Auraine, and Alutiana
Moreau's leadership and motive came into serious question following the Bettencourt Protests, the Bettencourt v. Government of Zamastan decision in the Supreme Court, and the independence of Mayotte, Auraine, and Alutiana on January 1st, 2021. These newly-autonomous states still remained under semi-protectorate status by Zamastan's federal government, but ultimately operated with sole autonomy, soldified through Mayotte joining the International Coalition of Nations in March of 2021, pushing it further from the influence of the central government. Additionally, hardline politicians from Drambenburg such as Chancellor Walde Herzog made strides to bring the newly independent states further into their sphere of influence.
In 2021, in response to dozens of arrests of West Chanchajillan diplomats abroad, Frederick Armbar initiated a series of terrorist attacks in East Chanchajilla, including an attack in Meguén that killed 76 people and an attack in Vilanja that killed 21. On February 23rd, the West Chanchajillan military launched a series of missile attacks across the Northwestern provinces in the cities of Turania, Nortagate, and Vilanja that killed 542 people and injured thousands.  President Boer put the nation's military on high alert and undertook retaliatory airstrikes. The airstrikes soon progressed into a ground offensive, with East Chanchajillan forces advancing beyond the border and capturing the city of Omi within days.
Zamastan, who had intercepted and shot down dozens of West Chanchajillan missiles on February 23rd, resolved to help Eastern forces by conducting airstrikes on March 1st, a campaign which would last for the remainder of the conflict. Eastern officials stated on numerous occasions that the inclusion of Zamastanian air superiority resulted directly to the speed at which Eastern forces advanced throughout the country. Despite being stalled after capturing Omi, Eastern forces managed to break the resistance and force the Western forces into a strategic retreat to the capital of Ivora. On March 16th, the cities of Vicalvi, Anamosori, and Treviso were captured, as was the nuclear facility in Treviso. The fall of these cities, in addition to the capture of Accadia two days later, meant the capital of Ivora was surrounded completely.
On March 22nd, 2021, Parabocan forces joined the conflict following a treaty signed between President Garr'n Cardoza and President Boer. The offensive now targeted Ivora, with the intention to capture the city, locate and capture Frederick Armbar, and overthrow the government and military rule. On March 24th, Presidents Boer, Cardoza, and Moreau met in Vilanja to discuss establishing a new tri-national run interim government following the inevitable capture of the city. However, fighting lasted longer and became more brutal than anticipated in Ivora. Armbar was killed on April 9th, and Ivora fell on April 17th. On May 1st, major combat operations ended and became relegated to peacekeeping and moderating pockets of resistance.
The war resulted in the end of the tyrannical socialist rule in West Chanchajilla, with Frederick Armbar and his loyalists being pushed out of political power. The East Chanchajillan, Parabocan, Zamastanian, and Janapan governments helped organize a national referendum for a new National Assembly on August 4th, 2021, the first free elections that West Chanchajilla had ever experienced.
On June 5th, 2021, the Blue Eagle rocket launched from Tregueux International Space Center with 16 astronauts from six nations aboard for the first manned-interplanetary mission, traveling to Eirus in order to establish a colony.