Empire of Kertosono
Nagari Karajan Kêrtåsånå
Prasètya Ulah Sakti Bhakti Praja
"Symbol of devotion towards the state"
"Song to Adityawarman"
|Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Prime Minister
• Kertic Confederation
|13 June 1873
• Foundation of Kertosono
|15 May 1901
|287,907 km2 (111,162 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
• 2020 census
|98.63/km2 (255.5/sq mi)
• Per capita
• Per capita
Kertosono, formally the Empire of Kertosono (Kertic: ꦤꦒꦫꦶꦏꦫꦗꦤ꧀ꦏꦼꦂꦠꦱꦤ, Nagari Karajan Kêrtåsånå, lit. "State of the Empire of Kertosono"), and until 2004 known as the Kertic Empire is a state located in the continent of Alharu in Eurth.
Ambitions or ideas of a pan-Kertic state emerged during the mid 19th century, when growing trade volumes and diplomatic interactions were observed between the fractured Kertic states. These states were often part or vassals of larger kingdoms and duchies, which have been granted autonomy. As a result, dozens of Kertic states existed during the "fractured period" when no singular government ruled over the majority of the Kertic peoples. However, beginning in the mid 19th century, the Kingdom of Ngawi, becoming much more powerful and dominant in Kertic affairs. This invited the other states to secure pan-Kertic interests both domestically and abroad, and eventually agreed upon the creation of a Pan-Kertic confederation, which was the predecessor to the Kertic Empire. With ties becoming closer with the creation of the pan-Kertic confederation, many saw the inevitability of a Kertic state being created, with Ngawi as its leader.
In 1901, the treaties of union were signed by 32 kingdoms, duchies, and other polities. This unifying them under one banner, common foreign policy, defense, and parliament, however each polity which existed prior to this declaration was still respected, and the once independent kingdoms became subdivisions of a greater empire. As a result, the local nobility still has a great presence in the governance and civil life of virtually all entities.
Kertosono is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy with the monarch of Ngawi serving as the Emperor of Kertosono as a whole. The powers of the Emperor are limited by the 1901 constitution and to a lesser extent the parliament. As a federation, the country is very devolved, and each political entity possess their own constitutions and laws which must adhere to the 1901 constitution and other national laws agreed by parliament.
Kertosono is a fairly recent term when referring to the region, which may be started around the turn of the 20th century when the Kertic Empire, whose native name is the "State of Kertosono". The term "Kertosono" was created during the pan-Kertic congress of 1872 which led to the pan-Kertic confederation. Ultimately, Kertosono derives from two Kertic words, which is Kerta which refers to the Kertic peoples, and "sono" which has grown to mean "ecompassing" or "far", hence Kertosono could be literally translated as "where the Kertic peoples reside". However, it wasn't until the early 21st century that the name "Kertosono" gained international traction, which coincided with the 2004 note from the central government to be referred as "Kertosono" as a short form of the "Kertic Empire". In 2006, the country officially changed its long Common name to the Empire of Kertosono.
Prior to the formation of Kertosono, the region was known by many names, including the small kingdoms and duchies which made up the present-day state such as the Kertic coast, Kertic heartlands, or simply "Kertia".
Located in the eastern coasts of Alharu, Kertosono currently borders XX. It also possesses four major islands off the coast of Alharu, with the largest one being the Island of Rembong. The Synthe Sea borders the country's eastern and southern coasts, and is a vital sea-route for trade coming and exiting the country. Kertosono covers a land area of 287,907 square kilometers, much of which is plateaus and highlands in the interior of the country, most notably the northern Kertic rises, and the central Kertic plateaus. The majority of the Kertic population reside in the coastal regions of the country, where the terrain is flat and more suited for agriculture.
There are four major rivers in the country. The Sambirejo river, whose source is located deep in the central Kertic plateaus, runs through the capital of Ngawi. The Kertonyono river, which passes through the heartlands of Kertonyono and its capital. The Argamas river, which is the main river in northern Kertosono around the Sragen-Ambarawa entities. The Gading river defines the border with YY in the northwest. Many tributaries of these rivers exist, and are a vital source of irrigation for most of the country.
Elevation wise, Kertosono is not that varied when compared to some of its neighbors. The highest point in Kertosono is located in the central Kertosono rise, named Mount Agung, reaching an elevation of 2,189 meters above sea level. Some parts of the city of Ngawi are below sea level due to the erosion of land occurring over the centuries. In general, the coastal areas of Kertosono are low-lying and flat, with elevations ranging no more than 100 meters from each other. The interior of the country is more mountainous and elevated, with two more prominent rises in the central Kertic plateaus. The plateau is, on average, 843 meters above sea level, and stretches from the northernmost point of the country to the Purwoasih region of the Kingdom of Ngawi.
The majority of the country falls under a monsoonal climate (Am) classification under the Köppen climate classification. A tiny subsection in the extreme west of the country falls under the tropical rainforest climate (Af). Although so, variations in the intensity of precipitation could be observed between different parts of the country due to the existence of the central Kertic plateaus and rises. For instance, the eastern coasts of Kertosono observed more rain and precipitation in a 50-year period than the west, contributing to more scarcities in water and food in the west historically. In recent times, shifting patterns in global temperature and climate have caused more extreme weather to occur to both sides of the mountain range, with the east experiencing more precipitation and the west less.
As a result of being almost-wholly located within the monsoonal climate range, precipitation, and temperature is very dependent on the month and season. The driest months are usually June-October, with the wettest months being January-March. Being a tropical and equatorial country, the temperature variation in Kertosono is minimal. The average year-round temperature is around 24 °C, with the hotter months having an average of 27 °C and the colder months having an average of 21 °C. The plateaus have colder average temperatures, with some localities reporting single-digit average temperatures during the cold season.
As a federal constitutional monarchy, the state is still divided into the pre-unification borders of the various political entities which now make up Kertosono. As a result, it possesses two separate houses in the national parliament. One to represent the nobility and by extension the political entities, known as the Griyå Sêsêpuh. And one to represent the common folk and populace, known as the Griyå Rakyat. During the compromise and unification of 1901, local leaders of the previously independent political entities were allowed to retain their position as such. Although, for a brief period between the compromise and the reforms of 1906, these positions were entirely symbolic, and the country was divided into provinces. After its abolishment, these leaders regained their authoritative power over their realms, although now subject to the Prime Minister and the Kertic Emperor.
The head of State is the Kertic Emperor, or the Emperor of Kertosono, which, under the 1901 constitution, is whomever the monarch of the Kingdom of Ngawi is currently. This arrangement was seen as highly symbolic as the Emperor does not possess much power outside their symbolic role of representing the nation, however, the Emperor, which still is the King of Ngawi, has full authoritative power over Ngawi. Although so, the Emperor is still a highly influential figure in Kertosono, as proximity to the Emperor is seen as beneficial both towards the public image of their allies or the relationship between the constituent entities of Kertosono. The head of government is the Prime Minister, traditionally appointed by the Emperor. However, a long-standing agreement and unwritten rule is that the Emperor would choose the candidate of the winning party/coalition in the lower house.
Kertosono is a highly-devolved country, and being a federation grants individual entities their own legislatures and cabinets. Political entities are allowed to decide on most local matters, such as the authoritative power of their monarchs and the role of the government within the daily lives of the people living there. Entities are free to decide between a unicameral and bicameral legislature, however the vast majority of them possess a bicameral structure to accommodate both the nobility and the common folk. In some provinces, local prime ministers exist to be the head of government for that specific political entity, while the monarchy is largely viewed as symbolic. In other entities with no form of monarchy, special arrangements are made to elect a governor or protector to lead that entity for a set amount of years, which varies quite a lot between entities. As a result, there is no singular political structure and general rule when it comes to the devolution of the Kertic states. This was enshrined in the 1901 constitution to let individual states maintain a sense of political independence from the central government while not being too divergent. National issues such as defense, fiscal policy, and justice are reserved for the national level.
Kertosono is politically divided into 42 first-level subdivisions, officially known as "political entities", which correspond to the borders of the independent states and political entities before unification in 1901. The 42 first-level subdivisions in Kertosono are grouped into seven major classifications generally based on its status before unification, in descending order by general size and influence, kingdoms, regencies, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, lands, and 1st-level cities. All divisions except 1-st level cities are considered rural divisions. As a result, most of the leaders and rulers of these first-level divisions are still a hereditary position with the ruling family before unification, being granted to rule over their own lands in servitude to the emperor of Kertosono. In some divisions without a hereditary ruler, direct elections take place. As all political entities are self-governing, no autonomous regions exist within the nation.
The second level divisions of Kertosono still carry the vestige of pre-unification era names and formation, and are thus much more varied in name and power than the first-level administrative divisions. The appointment of individual leaders differs from entity to entity, with some entities having direct elections for the post, usually bigger entities such as the kingdoms and regencies, or directly appointed, usually in smaller entities. On-par with the second level division is the kuthamadya and kuthapeken division, which is reserved for major cities and cities of entity importance. The third and fourth level divisions of the country are respectively called kacamatan and kalurahan, which function merely as administrative posts rather than regions with any form of autonomy. On-par with the third level division is the Kuthapraja, which is reserved for urban centers or other localities deemed important for more localized levels, and is led by a walikuthapraja.
Parties and elections
Kertosono has always had a multi-party parliament since the creation of the pan-Kertic legislature in 1901. Parties have to be approved by the ministry of the interior for it to be a legitimate political party and contest in elections to intervene in radical ideologies and ideas which may disrupt the functioning of Kertic politics. With Kertosono being a devolved and decentralized country, many of the political parties also have regional branches and offices, and run under the regional name and branch rather than the national one when contesting in local elections. As a result, some party names may differ according to region and entity, even though they are branches of the same party. The majority party or coalition is eligible to nominate a prime minister to be sworn in by the Emperor. The current Prime Minister, Sulistyono Raharjo, has held the office since 1998.
The methods of electing officials into both the national and regional parliaments have differed throughout different entities in history. There exists a unified standard and method of election when electing officials into the national parliament, while the method of electing the regional parliament is still left to the respective political entities. The 260-member lower house is elected via multiple non-transferable vote for constituencies that are allotted more than one representative, and first-pass-the-post for constituencies which are only allotted one representative. The unelected upper house consists of 77 members, which are the representation of the nobles, attain their seat via hereditary means, appointment by the regional monarch, or at the discretion of the prime minister. A set rotation of noble families has been in use since 1926, representing the majority of houses and nobility from each political entity.
The highest law in Kertosono is the 1901 constitution, to which all other laws must comply with. Kertosono adopts a mix of traditional law and civil law brought in by foreign traders and ministers already present in the Kingdom of Ngawi while the constitution was being written. Kertosono also has a system of courts, with the highest one being the supreme court of Kertosono. Below that, each entity possesses its own high court, i.e. the High Court of Ruwo. In some smaller entities, the high court of their entity is also the lowest level in the Kertic courts system, while in other larger entities such as the kingdoms, smaller divisions such as districts and circuits may also apply.
Kertic basic law differentiates between a criminal code and a civil code. A basic set of criminal and civil codes have been ratified at the national level. Political entities are free to add onto that code as long as it does not hinder with the 1901 constitution and the basic moral obligations of the law itself. For example, in the Grand Duchy of Banyumas, speeding tickets are calculated based on the offender's yearly income, and in the Land of Ploso, not having a clean licence plate is included in the list of fineable offences.
The Kertic Royal Armed Forces is the national army of Kertosono, and is composed of five main branches, namely the army, the air force, the navy, the coast guard, and the special forces. The yearly expenditure of the Kertic Royal Armed Forces is around 2.1% of GDP, and is handled directly under the ministry of defence. The royal armed forces consist of around 100,000 active members, with an additional 50,000 in reserves. Conscription does not exist in Kertosono, and the armed forces is 100% a voluntary army.
Kertosono, while officially adopting a socialist-oriented development strategy, is de facto a market economy with both the private and public sectors contributing towards the national economy. It is classified as a newly industrializing country and an upper-middle income economy, with a nominal GDP per capita of $X,XXX and a total GDP of $XXX.XX billion in 2020. PPP-wise, it boasts a GDP per capita of $X,XXX and a total GDP of $XXX.XX billion. Most of the Kertic economy is derived from the service sector, with strong contributions from the manufacturing sector. The share of agriculture within the national economy has significantly declined over the past few decades, however still employs some 21% of the national population, mostly in rural areas.
As a federation of kingdoms with a single market and customs union, Kertosono has grown from a highly-devolved economy to one that is comparable to a free trade union. This includes the gradual elimination of tariffs and costs among the Kertic states beginning in 1901. During this period, the richer maritime states would facilitate trade and ports for the landlocked and generally weaker inland duchies and polities in return for the continuous supply of rice and other essential food items. In the 1920s and 1930s, economic policies which shifted towards a socialist-oriented state began to take place, and is still the basis of operations to this day. In the 1960s and 1970s, small scale relaxation of policies took place and created a minor economic boom within the country. After relaxing virtually all sectors besides essential goods and services in the 1990s such as electricity, water and healthcare, Kertosono viewed its largest economic growth.
Currently, Kertosono's main exports are semiconductors, metals, and rice, with services such as financing and e-commerce starting to pop up across the country. Kertosono is rich in XXX, YYY, and ZZZ, and make the bulk of the raw exports of the country. Extensive exploitation of the materials have led some to concern the sustainability of these materials as contributors towards Kertosono's exports, and have called for further diversification and investment into the economy.
Kertosono's transport network has been largely shaped by the continued efforts of linking the historically more affluent and productive eastern entities with the rest of the country after unification. As a predominantly continental nation, Kertosono relies on its somewhat intensive road and rail network to facilitate the movement of goods and people. Kertosono also maintains a ferry and ship network between its islands, which operate regularly serviced lines. Beginning in the late 1990s, there has been a shift in preference, where most goods and other commodities are regularly transported using rail, and people by road with the opening of the first nationally-funded highway program.
The road network of Kertosono is fairly dense and interconnected, with major exceptions in the central Kertic plateau and the northern regions. According to the National Ministry of Public Works, Kertosono operates around 44,000 km of roads, both paved and unpaved, where jurisdiction of road construction and maintenance depends on the type and grade of road. Kertosono officially has 4 types of roads, labelled A, B, C, and D (in Latin characters). Roads designated as A and B are maintained by the federal government, while roads labelled C are maintained by the first-level political entities. Levels D and other unlabelled roads fall under the jurisdiction of more localized governments. In 1999, Kertosono opened its first federally-funded highway as part of the 1989 autoroute plan, named "Autoways". All A type roads are autoways. As of 2020, 1,957 km of autoways have been constructed and opened to the public.
Most of the rail network which existed in Kertosono was constructed and opened in the 1930s and 1940s, as an early attempt and policy to unite the country with a common infrastructure plan. As of 2019, Kertosono operates 3,582 km of rail out of the 4,149 km ever built. While passenger railways exist, most rail traffic is in the form of freight. Banyumas was the first city in Kertosono to open its own subway network in 2002, followed by Ngawi and Kertonyono in 2009 and 2015 respectively. Plans for high speed rail connecting the administrative capital Ngawi with Banyumas, the economic center of the country, have been put forth. This is speculated to be completed by 2029 if construction commences in 2023.
Kertosono's largest airport, Sultan Ngadirojo III airport, is one of eastern Alharu's busiest airports, serving more than XX million passengers in 2019 due to its strategic location as a transfer destination to other parts of Alharu. The Ministry of Transportation of Kertosono operates 3 international airports and an additional 3 domestic airports. The country's flag carrier, Bentala, commenced operations in 1942, and is a member of XXX group.
Kertosono also operates a system of ports, which is arguably one of the oldest infrastructure network within the country. The port of Banyumas is the largest port in Kertosono by number of TEU, while the port of Ngawi serviced the most number of people and vehicles in 2019. The historic ports of Rembong and Banyuasin, along with other ports both in the western and eastern coasts, form a "sea highway", created in 1985 under the name of Raja Samudra "King of the Ocean" to connect the country by sea.
Kertosono produced 70,000 GWh of energy in 2020, making it the XXXth largest producer of energy in Eurth. The country has substantial oil reserves, with 25 billion barrels of oil confirmed within Kertosono's EEZ, though some analysts put the potential figure higher at 80 to 100 billion, accounting for the undiscovered oil reserves. Kertosono heavily relies on oil as a source of electricity. The country is a net importer of oil, as oil drilling licenses have not been given out to any foreign companies. Because of this, the state-owned oil company PetroKer has trouble keeping up with demand with their extraction capabilities. As of 2018, the country has an installed capacity of 15,000 GW.
In 2018, the government has committed to curbing the use of non-renewable energy sources, and has pledged increased funding for green energy, most notably hydroelectric power. Kertosono's largest hydroelectric dam is currently under construction, and would possess an installed capacity of 2,000 GW. Other initiatives have also started to be performed, with the closure of several small coal and oil plants in Banyumas after the Suryananta solar plant was finished in 2022. The national government, under PM Sulistyono Raharjo, has pledged a minimum of 75% renewables by 2050. The change is being done slowly as to not disrupt the national electric grid, the Kertic interconnection.
Tourism is a greatly growing sector of the Kertic economy. In 2015, 1 million foreign visitors travelled to Kertosono, contributing nearly $1.2 billion in GDP. In 2020, a record 2.5 million visitors visited Kertosono, tripling the amount tourism contributed to the national GDP to nearly $3.7 billion. XXX, YYY, and ZZZ are major sources of tourists to Kertosono. Since 2010, Kertosono has used "Only here" as the country's international marketing campaign in an effort to promote tourism to the country.
Kertosono's nature and culture are prime attractions for tourists. Kertosono has been fairly isolated from the wider world, especially in the 1950s and 1960s, and has slowly begun opening up to the world. Travellers often find themselves immersed in an environment which is often very different from their home country, both in terms of nature and culture.
Kertosono's population stood at 28.3 million as of the latest 2020 census, making it the Xth most populated country in Alharu, and the Xth most populated nation in Eurth. The general structure of Kertosono's population has changed from a rapid population growth marked by high births and declining births in the early 1970s to the late 1980s to a more stable yet slower population growth, recorded at 1.12% last year. The average fertility rate for Kertosono is 2.31 children per woman, however this figure can greatly differ between rural and urban areas, as well as different regions. After a series of successful birth control programs and incentives in the early 2000s, they were relaxed in order to provide for a continued population growth. The median age of Kertosono is 28.7 years old, and life expectancy for males is 73.8 years, and for females 74.7 years.
Population distribution is heavily unbalanced, with a supermajority of the population living within 20 km of the coast. 9 out of the 10 largest cities in Kertosono are located on the coast. The eastern coast centered around Ngawi-Banyumas is the most densely populated area of the country, with the more mountainous and rugged north being the least densely populated area.
Kertosono is an ethnically homogenous country, with more than 99.3% of the population identifying as “Kertic.” Although so, there are numerous subgroups of the Kertic people which may have different customs and traditions, and speak different dialects of the Kertic language. Many linguists have even begun to refer to the term as the “Kertic languages” due to the large variety of dialects which exist in the country and the low mutual intelligibility of several dialects with one another. Religion wise, the country is overwhelmingly Salamid, with more than 97.3% of Kertics professing the faith. The rest are made up of a mixture of native beliefs and other religions, such as Christianity and Phosattism.
Largest cities or towns in Kertosono
The official state and national language of Kertosono is the Kertic language, written in the Kertic script. The Kertic language is not a single unified language. It is made up of very different dialects groups and continuums. Some linguists and scholars have traditionally classified the Kertic language as the Kertic languages, with the Singhasaren dialect spoken around the capital Ngawi as the official language of Kertosono. These classifications have been refused by the Kertic government on the basis that they separate the fragile unity of the Kertic people, and has pushed a narrative of a single people united by a single language. Linguists traditionally count up to 10 major dialect groups and continuums of the Kertic language.
Education in Kertosono is fairly decentralized with the individual political entities possessing their own standards of curricula offered to the students, however a national framework of schools and a national curriculum has been implemented since at least the late 1960s. The responsibility of education in Kertosono falls under the helm of the ministry of education and culture, and is responsible for overseeing the running of all schools, including institutes of higher education. As a national curriculum and framework exists, political entities are mandated to follow the bare minimums required by the curriculum and the framework. However, they are free to make new legislation adding onto the national curriculum. For example, local subjects, the inclusion of electives, and other technical stuff such as the minimum facility requirements of each school or institute. This can also include more administrative affairs, such as how budget reports are done and reported back to the ministry of education. Currently, Kertosono spends 4.5% of its GDP on education.
Since 2003, all Kertic citizens are required to attend 12 years of basic schooling, which covers primary and secondary education. Pupils are free to choose between state-run schools or private schools, which may offer additional curricula on top of the national curriculum. Primary education in Kertosono is solely done in the Sekolah Dhasar (SD) “Primary school”, or if a pupil selects a religious school a Madrasah Ibtida'iyah (MI) “Lower Madrasa”, both lasting for six years. After graduating from primary education, pupils enter a Sekolah Madya Pertama (SMP) “Junior High School” or a Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) “Middle Madrasa”, which covers the first half of secondary education, lasting for three years. After graduating from either an SMP or an MTs, pupils have three choices. They can enter a Sekolah Madya Ageng (SMA) “High School” for non-sectarian general education, a Sekolah Madya Kajuruan (SMK) “Vocational School” for technical training in various different fields and expertise, or a Madrasah Aliyah (MA) “High Madrasa” for religious education. SMA and MA last for three years, and SMK lasts for three or four years, depending on the trade selected.
Kertosono has a system of state-run universities overseen by the board of higher education responsible to the minister of education and culture. The unified system and framework still allows for individual universities and institutes to govern themselves, and is known as an “autonomous campus.” The unification of systems is solely for the purposes of admitting new students into the universities, as well as for administrative and budgeting purposes. Several notable universities in Kertosono are the University of Ngawi (UN), Gusti Raharjo Institute of Technology (ITGR), and the University of Kertonyono (UK). Admission to state-run universities are achieved either via invitation from the campuses themselves, or taking the Seleksi Sesarengan Mlebet Pamulangan Inggil Negeri or SSMPIN. This is a comprehensive exam which tests candidate's aptitude and knowledge acquired in high school for preparation of college life.
Healthcare in Kertosono falls under the jurisdiction of the ministry of health, responsible for overseeing all health facilities in Kertosono. The healthcare system in Kertosono consists of hospitals, medical centers, clinics, and other health facilities scattered throughout the nation. As part of a 1976 edict by the then Minister of Health Subandrio Asmodiroyo, each district (third-level division) must have at least one state-run clinic known as Puskawar (Pusat Kasehatan Wargi). Currently, Kertosono is shifting into universal healthcare by establishing a national insurance scheme named BPJS (Badan Panyelenggara Jaminan Sosial), in which every citizen is required to register into and receive its benefits.
The life expectancy in Kertosono has increased tremendously since the 1990s, and stands at around 73.8 years for males and 74.7 years for females. Kertosono has a low suicide rate when compared to the rest of Eurth, standing at around 2.1 suicides per 100,000 people. The infant mortality rate has also decreased significantly, and stands at around 6.1 deaths per 1000 births. The most common deaths in Kertosono are due to cardiovascular diseases which contribute around 38% of all natural deaths reported in 2019. Road fatalities account for 21% of all the non-natural deaths in Kertosono, the highest contributor of non-natural deaths in the country.