History of Orioni
Part of a series on the
|History of Orioni|
"The empire, long united, must divide; long divided, must unite. Thus it has ever been."
The history of Orioni dates back ten thousand years to the earliest known evidence of human habitation on the island. The appearance of an agriculture-based civilisation around 5000 BCE indicates the arrival of ancestral Orinese peoples. By the 6th Century BCE, Orioni's many kingdoms progressively became united under a centralized government controlled by the Empress. This dynasty continues to rule over Orioni. The island saw an influx of Borean migrants in the 12th Century. During the late modern period, the power of the Monarchy gradually shifted to allow more civilian power-sharing. Cultural influences from Oriental Europa, Thalassa and Marenesia, carried by waves of expansion and foreign contact, form the basis of modern Orinese culture.
- 1 Prehistory
- 2 Classical Orioni
- 3 Imperial Orioni
- 3.1 Early (500–300 BCE)
- 3.2 Middle (200 BCE–800 CE)
- 3.3 Late (800–1100)
- 3.4 Civil war
- 3.5 Taneino period (1318–1500)
- 3.6 Oino period (1500–1663)
- 3.7 Owara period (1663–1709)
- 3.8 Ogimachi period (1709–1771)
- 3.9 Omei period (1771–1867)
- 3.10 Nabérrie period (1867–present)
- 4 See also
- 5 References
The earliest signs of human habitation in Orioni are wall painting found in southwestern Weriki. These are dated to 8.000 to 10.000 years ago and resemble those made by the Marenesian Aborigines. Some wall paintings depict one group of people attacking and killing another. They represent the victims as being darker-skinned than the aggressors. Men are depicted wearing a loin cloth; women are shown wearing a waist cloth and small sleeveless vests, possibly made from palm or banana leaves. Some depictions wear necklaces and flowers in their hair and ears. This early culture is named Arcana after the archaeological site of Arcan on the southern side of the Altais mountains, where thousands of objects were discovered in 1857. Although most of the artefacts were found inland, it is now commonly accepted that the Arcana were spread along the entire western coastlines.
Arcana lived by fishing, hunting mammals and seabirds, and gathering seafood such as molluscs, oysters, and crabs. They fished from primitive bark canoes using baskets, fibre nets submerged in the water as scoops. The Arcana women dived some 7-8 metres (23-27 feet) for clams and sea urchins, keeping with their teeth the handle of a basket, in which they deposed what they were collecting. When the basket filled up, they emptied it into the boat. They hunted seals on the shores on the shores or on the sea from the canoes. They also hunted from the banks, with the hand, a net or bow and arrows. They also used the bow and arrows for hunting birds, while seals, sea lions and occasionally killed whales using harpoons with bone tips. One mythical folk story tells of the ancient cooperation between people and killer whales. When the natives saw a whale being chased by orcas, one of the old men would pretend to be weak and slow to make the orcas feel bad for him. And then the man would call on the orcas to bring the chased whale ashore. When the injured whale drifted onto the beach, the other men came out of hiding to kill the whale. This ritual encouraged the orcas to chase even larger whales ashore. People harvested the prey and shared the feast with neighbouring clans. In return, the orcas received the tongue, their favourite part.
We also know Arcana for their pottery. Islanders started to produce earthenware from 6500 BCE, affected by the continental culture in Tamurin. Pottery used for cooking or storage in the region was coloured red to brown, either smooth or textured. Pottery used for more formal purposes was often more richly adorned. In the eastern portion of the Arcana area, from about 6500 to 5300 BCE, the most common decorated pottery had black-painted designs on white or light grey backgrounds. The decoration is characterised by fine hatching and contrasting colours are produced by the use of mineral-based paint on a chalky background.
The Arcana religion believed in an almighty supreme god, master of all the things, without body and very kind, guarding the moral law that punished the evils and rewarded the good deeds. Between the supreme god and the humans, there are a lot of spirits, both good and evil, which only the shaman could dominate via magic rites. Evil spirits caused diseases and death, but the shaman could cure the ill person by making the harmful spirit leave the body with magic spells performed while reciting psalmodies and by rubbing the diseased body part. If all these actions failed, the shaman blew on the face of the diseased, sucking the painful body-part and finishing by simulating the extraction of the cause of the harm: a small stone, a caterpillar or something similar. People feared and respected the shamans because besides curing, people also believed they could cause disease.
WIP: named Etashorin after the place were first remains were identified as distinct from later periods.
During the late 5th millennium BCE, the Amari people settled in Orioni. The Amari (meaning "Children of Amma") were not native to the Orioni islands. According to oral traditions transcribed in later periods, they arrived from the east and spread across the entire island. Their exact origins are unclear. Their leader Nuhayi was a bearded man who taught the primitive Arcana people ethical and moral norms and gave them a model by which to organize their society, with one spiritual and one secular leader. Nuhayi also taught the people agriculture, metalworking and other crafts before disappearing into Europa in the west. By the early 4th millennium BCE, their culture had expanded to include much out east and south Orioni. By 4800 BCE, they are believed to have become the politically dominant ethnic group. The Amari intermarried with the earlier Arcana settlers and gradually spread into the western areas. Rulers of the later Medani Empire would claim to be Amari descendants.
Archaeological traces show the early Amari residents lived in mudbrick houses and stored their harvest in granaries. Immense complexes known as "great houses" typified their societal hierarchy. Archaeologists have found musical instruments, jewellery, ceramics, and ceremonial items, showing people in these Great Houses belonged to wealthy elite families. They hosted their burials indoors and buried gifts along with the dead, often including food and jewellery. As centuries passed and architecture evolved, the great houses retained some of their core traits. Most obvious is their sheer size: complexes averaged over 200 rooms each and some up to 500 rooms. Individual rooms were large, with higher ceilings than buildings of earlier periods. The Amari were excellent planners and erected vast sections or wings in a single stage, rather than in multiple phases.
One of the most notable aspects of Amari infrastructure is a system of roads radiating out from many great house sites such as Ketema and Hiyiweti. They led toward small outlier sites and natural features within and beyond the canyon limits. Through satellite images and ground investigations, archaeologists have detected at least eight main roads that together run for over 3000 km (1800 miles), and are over 10 m (30 feet) wide. They created these roads by removing vegetation and soil or excavating a level surface in the bedrock. The ancestral Amari of Tolo Canyon cut large ramps and stairways into the cliff rock to connect the roadways on the ridge tops of the canyon to the sites on the valley bottoms. The largest roads, constructed at the same time as many of the great house sites (between 3000 and 2525 BCE), are the Great East Road, the South Road, the Kojoyi Canyon Road, the Fiti Road, the West Road, and the shorter Tolo Road. We find simple structures like berms and walls sometimes aligned along with the courses of the roads. Some tracts of the roads lead to natural features such as freshwater springs, lakes, mountain tops, and pinnacles.
WIP: locations where remains have been found: Joktan, Obal, Almodad, Uzal, Nahor, Haran, Arpeleg, Armesh.
Early Iron Age
TL;DR: emergency of city-states, common maritime culture, from roughly 1800-980 BCE.
The city-state was the main political unit in Orioni, with a single city forming a nucleus of control over its surrounding rural territory. These cities were often in fierce competition with one another, and war between them was not uncommon. The early Orinese city-states were located on a long and narrow strip along the Azure Sea, butting up against the mountains. Along the arid Semeni coastal desert, the cities were limited to four river valleys that emerged from the Mendakh mountains, managing limited argiculture through an extensive system of irrigation. Geographically it is clear why Orioni became the maritime culture it still is today. Geography, timing and other factors all added up to an Orinese culture that was at once a loose group of autonomous city-states while simultaneously being a region that adopted similar maritime-merchant practices. Coastal living proved favourable for centuries as civilisations relied on the coastline and waterways for trade, irrigation, and as a food source. Historians have also noted population densities seem to concentrate on coastlines and those coastal areas enjoyed higher average incomes compared to those in landlocked areas. However, factors including soil fertility, nearby rivers, and ecological systems suited for rice or wheat cultivation could give way to denser inland populations. Conversely, cities without coastlines or navigable waterways were often smaller and had less growth potential due to slow movement of people, knowledge capital, and technological advances. They also had to rely on slow and expensive over-land trade, which usually resulted in a lack of access to regional and international markets, further hindering growth. Interior cities also had both lower population densities and labour-productivity levels. The mountains compelled the Orinese to live on the water. And so they turned their backs on the mountainous hinterland and faced the sea.
During this period the common concept of a city as we know it in Europa, as the urban concentration centre of politics, administration, religious and economic activities, wasn't established yet in ancient Orioni. These great cities emerged around sites of communal prayers, market-places, and schools which were often the venue for religious teaching. The religious activity centres, which refer to the location of where the temples stood, didn't mean the administrative or economic centre. Some city-states evolved into modern cities, while others returned to dust. Some major Orinese cities have been around for thousands of years. Initially, there were two power centres among several that were considered being Orinese. Meda is regarded as one of the oldest continuously occupied cities on Eurth. And Hierapolis also seems to have had prehistoric roots. Most historians agree that the political sphere during the second millennium BCE consisted of loose cooperation between cities; so far archaeologists found no significant enough city that could mean a capital city. At times, one of the city-states proved to be the strongest and could dominate the others. These city-states and their commercial fortunes rose and fell like the tides. Diplomatic arrangements, brotherhoods, and alliances were formed and broken again between the local city-kingdoms. The city-states maintained a strong martial culture, both to settle disputes among themselves, and to expand their frontiers against their neighbours. Early warfare was originally small-scale in nature. The aristocraatic warrior elites armoured themselves with bronze helmets and cuirasses, and went into battle wielding iron spears, javelins, stabbing swords, and shields. In general, the rich fought on horseback or on a chariot, while the lower classes fought on foot.
A monarch who had to cooperate with strong representatives of merchant families ruled every main city. Over time these representatives developed into city councils, that in the 1st millennium BCE sometimes could dethrone the monarchs. ($Add one example where this happened?) In addition, there appears to have been an independent religious aristocracy, mainly employing female priestesses and servants, but also with some few male priests. Women held an increasing status of women in Orinese society, shown by female statues wearing a wide belt on the dress and patterns that closely resemble those on male statues. In every city, the wealthy merchant aristocrats had certain rights protecting them from the full strength of the law. The second group, lower than this aristocracy, were the lesser businessmen, craftsmen, dealers, shopkeepers and entrepreneurs. Below this group in social standing were the normal working people. And at the bottom of the social hierarchy there were the slaves. Slaves had some protection under the law and could earn money and even buy their own freedom.
Part of the reason Europan academia has lumped together these Orinese city-states is that for a long time their place in the Europan view of history came through the later Aroman historians who were themselves far removed from the relevant time and place. The early city-states never made up one political unity, but we believe that there was a cultural identity between the peoples, mainly because of a common language. The cities were very similar in terms of social, societal and cultural structure. It is safe to say that a group of city-states held together by a common culture, religion and relative location. Beyond those major commonalities, the Orinese didn't view themselves as a cohesive political unit. Note that there was, in fact, a good measure of competition between the various cities. Each Orinese port city saw itself as an autonomous world and operated as a sovereign state.
One of the early empires in history, the Medanese reigned for more than 800 years. The earliest and most detailed description of Medani comes from later Orinese records. In 225 BCE, an Orinese official scribe writes that ancient Medani was very rich and had 100 warships to protect its trade. In early times, the natives called the area as the Land of Deli ("beautiful"). The Medani Empire grew from their Asehayi stronghold in Meda into a vast centralised state. Its capital was described as being surrounded by walls to form a city with double gates, towers and temples. Medanese religion and mythology were rich and multi-layered. Prior to 1500 BCE, they worshipped formless Gods thematically centered around the Mun and the San.
Numerous kingdoms existed on the eastern Deli peninsula. $Name began conquering this eastern region in the late 13th century BCE. He started raiding merchant vessels on the lucrative trade routes between the Orient and Memopotamia. With this loot, his successors, aided by foreign mercenaries, came to possess the entire Deli peninsula. Coastal cities where threated to either pay tribute or be sold into slavery. Around 1299, $Name's grandson $Name expanded westward into the mountains and declared himself King of Kings. The other Medanese elite had to earn their titles through military conquest. Now a dynastic empire with Meda as its capital, the Medani Empire continued to expand across the island. At its peak, it reached as far north as Tauri, as far west as Tigrai, and as far south as the $Name islands.
The Medani kings built many ships in the Nada bay of the Azure Sea. They sent forth men for pilots and navigators to fetch him gold from Europa. It's not too farfetched to think the Orinese held territory in the south of Europa on the Meteorolas. The Medanese had much to offer in terms of commerce. Their trademark sturdy cedar wood of the mountain lands they controlled, useful for constructing houses and ships. Meda and its neighbours didn't flourish simply as intermediaries between the Orient and Occident, they had something of their own to offer. They also offered their services as skilled navigators, sailors, shipbuilders and merchants.
WIP (Backlog of ideas to be incorporated somehow, somewhere.)
- Can borrow inspiration from Madhya Pradesh.
- Oris als sterke bufferstaat.
- Verdeel en heers toepassen.
- Political maneuvring and battles for territory characterize the Orinese fiefdoms, controlled by powerful families.
- Erwanin staten beseffen dat ze samen sterker staan.
- Coastal: Tartessos harbour city
- Rise of the Medani Empire
- 1090 BCE: First conflict between the Ophir and the Medani Empire. The Medani Empire in the east is slowly expanding into western territories. Fringe regions crumble. This leads to the Nairi confederation of tribes being formed. Erwanin begins to form.
TL;DR: from 980-536 BCE, angry confederation begins to fight back against Medani Empire; ups and downs; goldmines lead to more money; Meda is defeated.
The Erwanin Queendom was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power which dominated ancient Orioni between 980 BCE and 536 BCE.
Local life based on the size of city-states persisted until circa 1500 BCE. A real turning point happened when the first states emerged. This period is considered an early Golden Age and a time of many legends, clouding the true tale of what happened. It was estimated that around 980 BCE, the roots of the Queendom were put down. Hailing from the broad fertile Zinabi valley of what is now called O'polis, a tribeswoman by the name of Anahita used her position as matriarch to broker a federation between her own tribal city-state and 4 surrounding states. The area comprises roughly the Altais Plateau, the triangle between O'polis, Vega and Hierapolis, in today's central Orioni.
Most of the western island was divided into city-states, some of them as hereditary monarchies and other more semi-democratic governments. Usually, women played no important role, apart from religion. Originally, according to transcribed oral traditional, there were five tribes living in the O'polis area on the Altais Plateau: the Anidenya, the Huletenya, the Sositenya, the Aratenya and the Amisitenya. These five tribes formed an early league, the Shiguti (Anglish: fist). All signatories agreed not to attack one-another. And if one member violated that peace by attacking another member, the rest of the Shiguti would gang up and crush the offending violator. To cement this agreement the leaders of each tribe met once a year at the sacred grove of Tlitīna, a sanctuary likely near present-day Inu Waar. They discussed trade and also elected the meri, a temporary leader of the league. Their towns were frequently attacked by other tribes from the lower coastal land to the south and from the rulers of Tigrai province to the east. The Tigrai were a vassal and tributary state of the Medani empire.
Although not as rich as other, more coastal cities, this inland cluster was connected to the sea by the Wenizi river. The following decades saw even more coastal towns and cities join the Shiguti. The tribe of Anahita used cunning diplomacy and marriage to forge blood ties between the ruling houses of each city. Within its first century, this strong connection between inland and coastal city-states that created the Queendom of Orioni.
The Royal List covers rulers of Orioni from a time “after the flood” up to the rise of the First Empire. For many early city-states, it is the only source of chronological data. Unlike current calendars, most ancient calendars were based on how long the current ruler had been in power. A specific year might be described as “the 5th year in the reign of Nintoku”. As part of this, each royal year was given a title, like “the year Vega was defeated”. Most often this reflected a deed of the ruler. The compilation of these years is called the date list. A major problem is that many early rulers are listed with reigns of unnatural duration.
According to Ohin Sokhi, the monarchs have an unbroken female lineage that goes back more than 2,900 years. The key to knowing the origin of the Orioni royal line may lie within the ancient imperial tombs in the Altais mountains. However, since the Owara period (1663–1709), the Imperial Household Agency has refused to open the ancient imperial tombs to the public or to archaeologists, citing their desire not to disturb the spirits of the past Empresses. In December 2006, the Imperial Household Agency reversed its position and decided to allow researchers to enter some of the tombs with no restrictions.
Lady Anahita (1004-950 BCE) was born in Menideri. Her family were aristocrats. She was the daughter of Adon, the talak’u āmakarī (Anglish: grand councillor) of the Anidenya on the Altais Plateau. She had two brothers: $name and $name. She also had two sisters: Atika $lastname and Hind $lastname. Her father Adon and her uncle Davi were among the principal opponents of Tigrai, a people from the east. Classical Era epigraphers of the Aroman Empire refer to her as Anaïtis.
The Huletenya, on the eastern slopes of Altais, faced a direct threat from Tigrai. The neighbouring Anidenya made a natural ally against them. A marriage alliance between the two kingdoms of Anidenya and Huletenya could help better protect the state. Adon arranged the marriage of Anahita to Amir of the Huletenya tribe. In 988 BCE, at the age of sixteen, she was married. In 986 BCE she gave birth to her daughter Yumi (meaning blessed firstborn). The Huletenya tribe had a Diarchy: the queen consort served as the religious leader and the king as the military leader. Anahita held this religious position. Very little is actually known about these dual roles, such as what their exact titles were, and who exactly reigned what and when. The production of food among the Huletenya was similar to that of many other Orinese societies. Food habits were divided along gender lines, with men and women having specific tasks. Women played an active role in many of the stages of food production, giving them an important socio-political, economic, and spiritual roles in their communities. Huletenya men were mainly responsible for hunting and fishing, while women took care of farming and gathering wild fruits, nuts, berries, and shellfish. Women were responsible for the majority of all food production. Women's role in childbearing also made them closer to natural processes, becoming a symbol of the natural world. Nature includes not only weather and geography but also the prevalence of diseases, warfare and hunger. Men, in contrast, are more about culture. Cultures treat women differently based on whether nature is viewed as good or bad. In cultures where nature is holy and good, women perform rituals to help shape the powers of nature for the common good. Women also share decision-making power and have good standing in society. Cultures that view nature as evil and dangerous regard women as a threat to men and society. Nature is unpredictable, beyond control. This anxiety is transferred onto women, limiting their rights and responsibilities.
Since Amir was frequently absent on campaign, Anahita took on a greater role in ruling. As Queen Anahita developed irrigation schemes, used ploughs, grew millet, and made iron tools and weapons. A highly organised government was created to overcome the harsh mountain conditions. Terraces were constructed on the mountain sides for cooperative farming and planting. As a result the system produced plenty of food. Surplus was dried and stored for emergencies. These works required great technical skill, planning, resources and labour. Anahita instituted a system of corvée requiring each farmer to serve 1 day per week to complete these public projects. This rule could be relaxed during harvest time or expanded during times of war. Conquerors of new territory received a similar day of labour to develop their domain. Later historians would describe it as a sort of "communal" slavery.
Anahita's husband Amir was killed in the Battle of Inu Waar (984 BCE) against Tigrai. Anahita then remarried (983 BCE) Amir's brother Medir, who was much older than she was, but she accepted him because she wanted her daughter to grow up within her father's family. With Medir she had a son, Mehir. When Medir died in 980 BCE after an illness, this left Anahita in a precarious position. She was regent for five years until her son Mehir also died of illness. The Huletenya decided a succession crisis posed a greater threat to social stability than a female king. This led to the Diarchy being replaced by the Queen regnant, with Anahita assuming the military role as well. Her task was to keep the land stable until it had a male heir. But Anahita never remarried and never had another son. It has been speculated that ruling successfully as a woman made the Orinese regard her with particular reverence. The achievements of her reign, including stabilising and strengthening her lands during a destructive war, were retold over the generations until she was turned into a mythical figure. Later Aroman myths surrounding Anahita stem from the successful campaigns she waged and the novelty of a woman ruling.
Battle of Kourma
As the undisputed military commander, Anahita continued the war with Tigrai. In the Battle of Kourma the Orinese were outnumbered. The battle was actually a series of multiple skirmishes that lasted for five days in August 979 BCE near the Kourma River. Two of the earliest history books on Orioni pay great tribute to Anahita for her actions in the middle of the fight. These books show how instrumental the women were in the battle. Every time the infantry wavered, the women directed them to continue the fight, reminding them that a loss would mean total enslavement. With help from the women and boys in the baggage train, they finally defeated the Tigrai. Anahita sent plunder home to Menideri and made offerings at Hierapolis.
This victory over Tigrai caused great notoriety for Anahita. The widows of each tribe determined on uniting the five Altais tribes to defeat their common enemy and preserve peace. The men accepted this decision, leading to the creation of Erwanin, a loose alliance that consisted of the five most powerful city-states. While this enabled them to regulate each other's economic and military interests, each city remained largely independent in practice.
A monument was erected to commemorate this event. Anahita was allowed to take the throne. And Anahita's descendants became the main leaders. Standing at the beginning of a long line of powerful women, Anahita set a precedent for women in Oriental monarchies. It became the norm for women to (co-)rule, lead armies, and enter into intense struggles for succession. The Imperial family of Orioni claims its origin directly from the descent Anahita, through the golden lineage. Nin āna ātīta t’ebībani (Anglish: Queen Anahita the Wise, 1984) is an Orinese film based on a novel of the same title by Hind Ingoliyani (1979); both recount her life.
Anahita was succeeded by her daughter Yumi (...-930 BCE). Classical authors mainly wrote about Yumi in the context of her famous mother rather than as a figure in her own right. In $year, Queen Yumi increased the pressure on the Medani territory by closing the border trade and killing a Medani envoy. To contain Erwa-Nin, the Medani empire reoccupied part of the Tigrai area, began constructing the Long Wall, and stationed soldiers there to keep watch on Erwa-Nin. Queen Yumi laid the foundations for a dual system of militaray defence: stationary armies would guard a specific point, while a purposefully created mobile force could move where it was needed.
Into the west
- more mountains, more iron, more weapons
- coastal areas to dominate trade with Magna Europa
Final push to defeat Tigrai
- Tigranes the Great, honorary title for the military general who conquered Tigrai. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tigranes_the_Great
- The takeover of Tigrai goldmines leads to increased wealth. Also access to the rich coastal port of Ophir. Together with orichalcum these precious metals are an important trade comodity with the Europan nations.
- King-general dies in battle against Tigrai
- Queen-Priestess continues, establishes a dynasty
- Kourma battle against Medani Empire
- The Queendom of Orioni promoted expansionism in order to gain more lands for its people.
- Soft tactics such as mutually beneficial commercial deals and royal intermarriages with neighbouring monarchies continued to unite the southern coastlands.
- Orinesation of western Orioni. The royal administration supported received revenue from an agrarian economy. The queens granted land as rewards for service. The beneficiaries became landlords to tenants producing agricultural goods and forest products. The higher regions with temperate climate were suitable for raising cattle and the planting of orchards.
- When Empress $Name died, her sister $Name took over the rulership. She expanded the Queendom's territory, and replaced the important governorships of different regions and gave them to family members who were loyal to her. This further centralised power.
- First contacts with Europa. Importing better weapons and horses for use in army cavalries was a flourishing business on the western seaboard. Trade on the west coast brought many foreigners to Orioni including Sahrabs, Memopotamians, Hakkadians, Orientals and people from the Tamurin peninsula. Foreign kings wrote to the queen and greet her as "my sister".
- Once a stronghold was established, what followed was a serious juggernaut of bloody conquests against the fiefdoms that surrounded it.
- Submitted King Milinda of Dion and his Yonakas warriors. Milinda pleads for assistance from the king of Medani, highlighting the desperate situation Dion faced: "My Lord, behold, the enemy's ships came; my cities were burned, and they did evil things in my country. Does not my father know that all my troops and chariots are in the Land of Oris, and all my ships are in the Land of Meda? ... Thus, the country is abandoned to itself. May my Lord know it: the seven ships of the enemy that came here inflicted much damage upon us."
- Conquest of inland goldmines (Mendakh Mts)
- Submitted Nāgasena of Oris and his Arahant followers
- 500 BCE - Heresy Wars: http://homeworld.wikia.com/wiki/Heresy_Wars
- Final battle against Medani Empire
- (More needs to happen here, currency, development into Europa, events based on the royal list.)
- 2nd Century BCE: "Orioni delenda est"
- Queen Dido/Elissa of Carthage
- Maiden of blackbird field https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_Maiden_(poem)
TL;DR: expansion; west is added; slow creep towards Medani; continental trade
(represented by the animal at her feet), dated $number Century BCE]]
- 820 BCE: The Middle Queendom period began with the rule of Queen Orei around 820 BCE. Her rule was characterized by an "Orinesation" of the western Alnitak region, and the future queen took the title "queen of Erwanin and Ierakshini". While the first of these new queens continued to use the Ierakshin language frequently in their inscriptions, the succeeding queens used early Oharic with increasing regularity. Likewise, early Oharic language grew in importance in the east.
- By conquering the western coastal city-states on the Tethys Sea, Orioni became a major player along the Pearl Road, the commercial route between the Memopotamia, the Aroman Empire and Far Eastern states such as Jaihu. The Queendom also regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the nearby Europan mainland, including the Tamarini peninsula (Anglish: Tamurin).
- The alliance was effectively ruled by the Empress in Ophir. It was an indirect empire, meaning: conquered city-states were allowed to remain relatively autonomous as long as they paid semi-tribute to the alliance as well as any military forces required for war efforts. In return, they received protection and access to a vast economic network.
- Negatively mentioned by the Hebrew prophet Isaiah (8-7th Century BCE): "As for these people, women rule over them. Orioni people, they which lead thee cause thee to err, and destroy the way of thy paths." (Isaiah 3:12)
- At the same time, Orinese tried to curtail male authority, removing previous male leaders from the royal lists and making sure that no man held multiple royal titles.
If an ancient Aroman happened to visit Orioni, they may have been surprised to find women enjoyed a great deal of freedom and autonomy compared to their Occidental counterparts. Later Aroman authors often condemned them as frivolous, spoiled, and depraved when compared to Occidental women. These Wives and Daughters of Erwanin had the freedom to own, inherit and transfer property as they saw fit. During ceremonial banquets, they feasted alongside men as equals. For them, there was no shame in drinking, in contrast to Greek women, who were generally expected to forego alcohol. Orinese women were also prominent leaders in religious life, serving as Oracles and Priestesses who held direct sway over their people’s political decisions through their powers of divination.
Each Orinese male who reached adulthood received an allotment of public farmland from the city of Ophir and a contingent of slaves to work it. The wealth created by each farm was enough to turn every Orinese citizen into a landed aristocrat. They became rich enough that nobody had to work for a living. When an Orinese man died, his public allotment of farmland went back to the state, but his private property went to his wife. Not his son, but his wife. This Orinese inheritance law was so radical that it terrified everybody else in Europa. It had large consequences because husband's dying young was an extremely common occurrence in such a militarised society. Many of these women who had inherited their husband's wealth would devote the rest of their lives to taking their small fortunes and turning them into large ones.
Eventually, when these wealthy women died, their land would be passed equally to their male and female children. This is the radical bit. Now imagine a rich young woman with inherited wealth marrying an equally rich young man. If that young man died in battle, which happened a lot, his wife would inherit his entire estate and go from rich to ultra-rich. Then she had her whole life ahead of her, to expand her wealth even further, and pass it on to her sons and daughters.
In other words: rich women tended to produce more rich women. These rich women married rich men, and during periods when lots of husbands died young, this created a snowball effect. These ultra-rich women were referred to as the Orinese Heiresses. The Aroman philosopher Lykeion (384–322 BCE) wrote that in his time, nearly 40% of all lands were owned and administered by a small group of extremely wealthy women. Their combined wealth dwarfed even the monarch by orders of magnitude. They were a political constituency unto themselves because some of the most powerful people in Orioni were completely dependent on loans from the Orinese Heiresses. Their influence was immense. Periodically, politicians in Orioni would start talking about land reform, and every time the Orinese Heiresses would block it by flooding the system with money and buying off politicians. The rest of Europa was horrified that such a small group of women had such a tight grip on Orinese politics. Lykeion complained at length about how wealthy Orinese wives tended to dominate their less wealthy husbands, and, that the entire population of women had been ruined by their "intemperance and luxury".
Defeat of Medani Empire
TL;DR: gold mines; power balance shifts; victory against Medani; Queendom becomes Empire.
- Ohbuli emerged on the east and west banks of the Wenezi river. The first mention of Ohbuli in Europan records dates from 1570 BCE in reference to a commandery established by the Medani dynasty.
- The capital itself is more likely to refer to the palace, a walled compound, where the queen and her family reside and rule his court. The palace itself is more of a collection of pavilions surrounded by walls. These pavilions and halls are made from organic wooden and thatched materials, so they had decayed over centuries leaving only stone walls, gates, terraces and bases. The only walled, well-guarded and protected compound was the queen's palace and temple compound. The capital itself was more of a collection of densely populated villages surrounding the queen's palace.
- The Queen was regarded as the paramount ruler, holding the highest power and authority. She ruled from her palace. Under the queen, there were state officials that served to forward the queen's laws and orders. The officials ruled an administrative unit that formed from the collection of several villages. As the queendom grew larger and complex, series of state officials are added to add hierarchy levels.
- The Queendom at its height at times extended across most of present-day $regions. The capital city of the empire was Ophir, near the modern-day Vega in southwestern Orioni. Other important cities included $city, $city, and $city. By the reign of $queen in the late 4th century BCE, it had begun minting its own currency and was named by classical historians as one of the four great powers of its time along with Jaihu, Hakkad, and Aroma
- 708 BCE. Victory against Meda by conquering Andro.
- 682 BCE: Major victory pushing back Meda with the conquest of Oris. "We never plant wheat and never will so long as there are other harvests to reap with the sword"
- 597 BCE. Victory against Meda by conquering Tarabulus (Tripolis).
- 536 BCE. Fight against the declining Medani empire continues. The Medani empire was the victim of many ills including overexpansion, environmental degradation and poor leadership. It was brought to its knees when Meda was sacked by the Orinese in 536 BCE. The last Medani ruler to abdicate was Debideba.
I'm the King of Ashes. Nothing from the flame survives. Hands cannot turn the tides. I have been consumed. I used to rule the world. Seas would rise when I gave the word. Now in the morning, I sleep alone. Sweep the streets I used to own.
His queen; his harem; his heir; and the rest of his sons and daughters; his property and his good; his horses, cattle, and sheep in countless number I carried off. Over all of the lands, I appointed anew kings, viceroys, governors, commandants, overseers, and scribes. Offering and fixed dues I established for the great goddess for all time; my royal tribute and tax, yearly without ceasing, I imposed upon them. I had a stele made with my name inscribed, and on it, I had written the might of my conquering hand. For the gaze of all my foes, to the end of days, I set it up. Whoever shall destroy that stele from its place or shall blot out my inscribed name, and shall write his name, or shall cover it with dust, or cast it into the water, or burn it in the fire, or put it in a place where it cannot be seen -- may Ishtar, the lady of combat and battle destroy his manhood (so that he is) like a woman;may she cause him to sit in bonds under his foes.
—Victory Stele of Nintoku (3.46 meters high and 1.35 meters wide)
- Empire of Orioni
TL;DR: from 536 BCE–1023 CE; Queendom becomes Empire; consolidation of the island; uniform culture; first explorations of the greater Eurth; riches, slavery; debauchery.
Early (500–300 BCE)
During this time the crowns of Erwanin and Medani merged their collective navy. Orioni began annexing eastern states while fighting along its own coastline in the West. Orioni’s expansion took its troops into different areas of the island, gaining ever more land. Both the eastern and western states were conquered. What remained of the independent northern states soon joined the Orioni Empire, unifying the island. In the year 536 BCE, all separate tribes had been united, and the Queendom became known as the Orioni Empire. Borders between previous states faded indefinitely into a single powerhouse under one command.
Monarchs passed the Imperial title down through a matriarchal succession, from mother to daughter. Not once was this royal bloodline broken, although there have been moments of terrible danger and uncertainty. The most imported archaeological finding from this period is the ancient ruins of the first palace on Mount Oromis, situated close to present-day Zuidhaven. Besides being a symbol of the Empire, the ruins also serve an important ideological function. <$rewrite>
Many see this period as the Golden Age of exploration, marked by the first excursions into the interior. From the southern deltas, brave men and women followed the course of the great Orinoco ($RENAME) upstream, into the denser forest areas to the north and beyond towards the Mendakh mountains. In 79 CE the eastern city of Tripolis was destroyed by a massive landslide. Within greater Europa, the extent of their long-distance trade is also shown by the presence of Orinese merchants in the Sun Ocean. With the expansion of trade as far as the Rage Sea they were also able to carry out sea trade. At the end of the 2nd century BCE, Orioni found itself ruling over a vast stretch of islands which, after the civil war a few centuries later, returned to their previous independence.
Formation & expansion
- Takeover of former Medani client kingdoms and colonies.
- The Orioni empire was proclaimed after the conquest of Meda. Multiple forces were in play: war with other kingdoms, struggles among the Medani elite, new social concepts from Amisti religion, global trade shifts, and erratic monsoons that encouraged the leader to establish a masterful water system to provide a stable rice harvest.
- It began as a trading empire centred in southern Orioni.
- The Orioni empire was uniquely situated for success. Indeed, the borders of the empire expanded further than the queendom ever had. And unlike the queendom, which had been merely situated between the trade zones of east and west, the empire's newly annexed territories now contained three immense goldmines within its own borders. Seeing this potential, the monarchy reinvigorated the trade in slaves and golds, taxing every merchant that passed through the Tethys Sea. The combination of a decentralised stable government and steady tax revenue allowed the Empress to organise and outfit a sizeable fulltime military to guard the maritime routes, ensuring that trade continued to flow.
- 498 BCE: When in 498 BCE the young and feisty democracy in modern Tamurin decides to send a small fleet to aid their fellow tribesmen in western Orioni to rebel against the Empire they incurred terrible wrath the world had not yet known.
- 323 BCE: "Cynane (Greek: Kυνάνη, Kynane or Κύνα, Kyna; killed 323 BC) was a half-sister to Alexander the Great, and daughter of Philip II by Audata, an Illyrian princess. Cynane, the daughter of Philip was famous for her military knowledge: she conducted armies, and in the field charged at the head of them. Polyaenus writes, "Cynane, the daughter of Philip was famous for her military knowledge: she conducted armies, and in the field charged at the head of them. In an engagement with the Illyrians, she with her own hand slew Caeria their queen; and with great slaughter defeated the Illyrian army." She married Amyntas, son of Perdiccas; and, soon after losing him, never would take a second husband. Cynane continued unmarried and employed herself in the education of her daughter, Adea or to whom she gave a military education, after the manner of her own education, in martial exercises and the science of war. Upon Alexander’s death, in exclusion of the royal family, his generals parcelling out his dominions among themselves, she crossed the Strymon; forcing her way in the face of Antipater, who disputed her passage over it. She then passed the Hellespont, to meet the Medani army: when Alcetas with a powerful force advanced to give her battle. The Medanese at first paused at the sight of Philip’s daughter, and the sister of Alexander: while after reproaching Alcetas with ingratitude, undaunted at the number of his forces, and his formidable preparations for battle, she bravely engaged him; resolved upon a glorious death, rather than, stripped of her dominions, accept a private life, unworthy of the daughter of Philip."
At some point between 610 and before 594 BC, Queen Ojin I reputedly commissioned an expedition of Orinese. The sailing of this fleet was the beginning of trouble not only for Meda, but for other peoples and nations throughout the Orient. In three years they sailed from the Azure Sea towards the west around Europa and back to Hierapolis. The belief in the historical account, referenced in the periplus of Pino the Navigator, is primarily because it states with disbelief that the Orinese "as they sailed on a westerly course round the southern end of Yulideri (Jilderen), they had the sun on their right", to the north of them, since they had crossed the Equator.
In this classical time, it was not generally known that Europa was surrounded by an ocean. Orientologist A. B. Lloyd disputed in 1977: "that any Orinese Queen would authorize such an expedition, except for the reasons of conquest and trade in the ancient maritime routes." Variot philosopher Mark Karls (1818-1883) was more positive in his historiography: "East is West, and West is East, and soon the twain shall meet."
The navigable skills and mobility of the Orinese on their swift Lohitanga red keel ships allowed them to be present, very early, not only along the Orioni coast, but they reached also the opposite, western, Europan coast. This process started in the latter half of the Classical Age, from the 4th to 3rd centuries BCE. The Orinese were already in the Europan coast, establishing colonies in Tamarini and especially in Birlini, where specific cultures developed. In later centuries this created a common cultural unity along the Tethys and Azure Seas, with a distinctive Orinese mark, whose naval supremacy meant both political and economic authority through several centuries. Some similar toponyms also attest to speculated migrations to the further west, towards Miiros and even Amakiri.
- The empire took its unified form with a central administration around $City erected by $Name. The empire ended up conquering and enlarging the Medani Empire to include many more territories, for example in Europa. During the reigns of $Name and her daughter $Name it engaged in military conflict with some of the major city-states of continental Europa.
- 518–516 BCE. The Orinese thereafter consolidated areas firmly under their control. It was $Name and $Name who, by sound and farsighted administrative planning, brilliant military manoeuvring, and a humanistic worldview, established the greatness of Orioni and, in less than fifty years, raised them from an obscure state to world power. It was during the reign of $Name that Hierapolis was expanded (518–516 BCE) and which would serve as capital for several generations.
- One major advantage of the Orioni Empire was its ability to communicate quickly over large distances. Quick and effective communication in the military allowed the mobilisation of people and resources. This worked also worked for defensive actions against riots and rebellions.
- Communication to citizens was vital to the coordination of economic policy, legal reform, new taxes and propaganda.
- Consider the classical phrase: "All sea routes lead to Hierapolis."
- However, distant colonies remained relatively decentralised. The local governors had much liberty to make their own decisions as they saw fit, provided they obeyed the imperial law.
- When they reached the southern coast, foreign ships moored at a port of Hierapolis on the central mouth of the Wenizi river. Merchants conducted most trades further inland, at the royal capital city of O'polis. The periplus tells us that "they take all cargoes up the river to the queen at the metropolis"; this ‘metropolis’ being O'polis.
- As the foreign merchants unloaded their cargo, they experienced a sophisticated and organised process of a bureaucratic organisation. Foreign cargo unloaded at Hierapolis was assessed and catalogued by the customs 'Magistrate of Boundaries'. This person examined the quality of the incoming cargo and verified it by stamping his own personal seal on it. He also collected road and ferry tolls on merchants, kept customs records and maintained a network of spies to watch the incoming cargo and suspicious mercantile activity.
- As the merchants and their cargo arrived at the gates of O'polis, another official known as the ‘Magistrate of Tolls’ operated a customs station. A distinctive banner signified his presence. His servants recorded: "who the merchants are, where they come from, how much merchandise they bring and where they received their first customs seal."
- Cargo details taken at both Hierapolis and O'polis were compared to make sure taxes weren't being avoided. They subjected goods without a seal mark to double tax rates, while those having counterfeited a seal would have their entire cargo seized. Natives who imported foreign goods were favoured by having their taxes cut.
- Periodic plagues floods droughts and famines that afflicted the peasant farming class were dealt with effectively. $Name Dynasty Empresses granted tax amnesty grain relief and the right to fish and hunt on royal lands to peasants during times of crisis. This ultimately prevented Civil War. This wasn't always the case, so when famine struck peasants had their taxes raised land seized and wages; cut consequently this led to the mass rebellion of the poor.
Middle (200 BCE–800 CE)
- The empress and the royal family are known as the patron of arts and also religious piousness. They had the authority to launch public projects, such as irrigation works or temple construction. The art and religious patronage can be seen in sponsoring temples constructions. The queendom left behind several temples and monuments. The most notable one was the temple of Pantanassa in Hierapolis.
- Warrior twins (12-43 CE).
- The Pearl Road was established. This maritime trade route connected Orioni to Southeast Europa, Meteorolan archipelago, Oriental subcontinent, Memopotamian peninsula, all the way to Zongla and finally Occidental Aroma. The trade route included crossing several bodies of waters skirting the Oriental Ocean, but not yet into the open ocean. The route overlapped with local Miirosi maritime trade, Paraia Sea trade, Hakenian naval trade network. Evidence of these movements can be seen in shipwrecks recovered in the Rivdon Bay and Rosario Sea. The Pearly gates was an informal name for the strait between Tamurin and Orioni, a term later repurposed by some early Christians.
- The earliest diplomatic relations between Orioni and the Golden River civilisation are recorded in the Dōngfāng dìlǐ (東方地理, Eastern Geography). In 225, a Jaihuian official, Zhukuo Rao, reported that Orioni had 100 warships to protect its trade, and that there was a lot of wealth in the queendom. In the 4th century, Tamrini seems to be subjected to Orioni. The Orinese manuscript Sayinisi Lefiyoni (Eulogy to Fioni), written in 365, mentioned Birlini as the vassal state of Orioni, which had to make an annual tribute of 15 talents of gold.
- Meriya Nin (361-411 CE), the widowed queen of a Birlini Confederation, led a revolt against Aromans in what is now Amakiri. Using desert guerrilla tactics, she led troops deep into Rennd, outmanoeuvring Aroman legions that eventually accepted her terms.
TL;DR: Golden era of consolidation and exploitation.
- 100 CE: Ritual mask. https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=463915&partId=1&place=791&plaA=791-3-2&page=1
- 201-300: Inscribed pillars spread throughout the empire. Inscribed with imperial edicts during the 3rd century CE. The inscriptions are currently believed to be trilingual. Fifty pillars still survive to this day. (~Xanthian Obelisk and Edicts of Ashoka and Orkhon inscriptions)
- 301-400: Lady of Elx (4th Century BCE). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_of_Elche
- C. 625-700: Empress $Name political and military leadership led to a major expansion of the Orinese empire, extending it into Central Europa, and engaging in a series of wars on the Memopotamian peninsula. Colony-fixed legions performed so many civilian administrative functions on top of their army role that their removal would cause serious disruption in the evacuated area.
- 760–880: During the Mikoto period (c. 760–880), the Orioni empire reached the height of its power.
- With trade booming, they financed an exploratory expedition into the Oriental Ocean, which returned with reports of a great current flowing through the ocean. Seeing an opportunity for wealth and adventure, the Empress $name, raised a fleet of 1.000 ships and prepared to find and settle whatever new land this current might sweep her to. She left her sister $name in charge of the empire and dropped her sails. Neither the Empress nor any of her ships were ever heard from again. Yet this unfortunate occurrence paved the way for Orioni's golden age.
- Slavery. Slavery was widespread in Orioni. More powerful groups could consign to slavery weaker members of other communities or even individuals from their own tribe. The medieval empire seized slaves during expeditions in Christian outposts. Many of the slaves were assimilated, others exported or gifted to local rulers in exchange for military support. The Orinese, as the ruling people, enslaved other ethnic groups. The Orinese were also occasionally enslaved by foreigners, and sometimes Orinese boys and girls were kidnapped by slave raiders from northern Europa and then sold.
- Bariyan Wars, a series of three slave revolts ("bariyan" is derived from "bariya", Oharic for "slave") in the middle First Empire.
- Vasari (Prime-minister) takes over more power
- Weakening of central authority
- Possibility of usurpation
- The Idamak inscription ($year), mentioned Miirosi and Jilders as foreigners from mainland Europa that frequently came to Orioni to trade. The inscription suggests a maritime trade network has been established between kingdoms in mainland Southwest Europa and Orioni.
- Orinese society was highly stratified. A complex and stratified society of ancient Orinese people and their social order can be seen through studies on the rich portrayal in bas-reliefs from this period, as well as inscription studies. The Empire had developed a complex society; which characterised by heterogeneity of their society, inequality of social stratification, and the formation of a national administrative institution in their empire. The ancient Orinese recognised four social classes: Arayanii (queens, warlords and nobility), Amistii (priests), Negadii (traders and artisans), and Bariyaii (servants and slaves).
- 601-700: Empress $Name supports and leads an indigenous resistance to the Muslim conquest in Mahdah, the region then known as Memopotamia. Her title was cited by Sahrabic-language sources as al-Kesi (the priestess), a nickname given to by her Muslim opponents because of her alleged ability to foresee the future. In later centuries, al-Kesi's legend is used to bolster the claims of Orinese dynastic rights in Memopotamia.
- 672: years of 3 empresses
- 700: Foreign kings come to pay tribute to the Empress.
- 731: The first incidence of plague in Orioni in the colonial city of Ishikamo.
Even the most seemingly eternal of empires declined through stories of conquest, corruption, incompetence, assassination, bigotry, and environmental crisis.
- There appear to have been several introductions of the plague or 'Black Death' into Europa. The Black Death is thought to have originated in the arid plains of southern Europa, where it then travelled along the Silk Road. From there, it was most likely carried by Oriental rat fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships. The first of such plague reached mainland Orioni via Vega in October 987, carried by twelve foreign galleys, and rapidly spread all over the city. Galleys from Vega reached Perseus and Andro in January 988, but it was the outbreak in Hierapolis a few weeks later that was the entry point to the Orioni heartland. Spreading throughout Orioni, the Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60% of the total population.
- The plague created a series of religious, social, and economic upheavals, which had profound effects on the course of Orioni history. The poor, finding their status worsened with each year—the government in the hands of their masters, and the corrupt courts deciding every issue against them, began to talk of violent revolt. The rich, angry at the challenge to their property, prepared to defend themselves by force. The serfs in Orioni, led by Lusiyesi Sergius, rebelled against Imperial tyranny over their impoverished lives. Sergius, proposing to abolish all debts, organized a revolutionary army of "starving serfs"; he died in battle against the empire. When the revolt was swiftly crushed, the government punished them with the Draconian Acts: laws that punished the peasant farmers, such as forced conscription for 15 years. The upper classes in Orioni cursed, complied, and resumed the concentration of wealth. This response gave rise to even more hatred towards the Crown.
- The Akrep clan put forward a royal pretender of their own, claiming their right to the throne. Akrep was a clan of spies, manipulators, and assassins who valued loyalty and duty and for whom the ends justify the means. The samurai of the Akrep clan understood that by dirtying their hands, they ensured that no others need do so. The Akrep dynasty was founded by Duke Ajonar Akrep, who was the son of Ajonak Akrep, the prince of Meda, the capital city of eastern Orioni. Ajonak’s career saw the strengthening of the regional military. He was in charge of the inland conquests in the east and established his stronghold at Meda. His successor Ajonar morphed Meda into a major oriental power in the last decade of the 10th Century. As such, the Akrep clan held sway over many of the eastern coastal cities.
- The growing strength of Akrep led them to attempt an assassination against the Empress in the symbolic year of 999. For a clan that prides itself on logic, the Akrep are highly superstitious. An Akrep samurai says the prayers he needs to say, he dons whatever fetishes or talismans he needs to wear that day, and thinks no more on the matter. Many of these superstitions are considered strange among other clans, for example, sprinkling salt on a new garment or never stepping backwards through a threshold. Even though the assassination during this 'Day of Thunder' failed, the Akrep gained their reputation for ruthlessness in battle. It was Ajonak who said that: "On the battlefield, all actions are honourable." For the Akrep, truer words were never spoken. If this means poisoning the enemy's supplies, hiring a ninja to assassinate the opposing general, or paying the enemy's soldiers to double-cross them, then that is acceptable.
- Royal processions with elephants and gold-draped horses, festivals, fireworks, and Orinese give no impression of decline. But in the first decades of the 1000s, the empire loses vitality.
- A possible decade of drought begins, according to modern tree-ring data.
|Orinese civil war|
Usurpers break into Hierapolis palace in 1063
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
The Orinese civil war lasted from 1023–1174. Practically all past civilisations have suffered collapse. Collapse can be described as a swift and lasting decline in population, cultural identity and socio-economic complexity. Government administration stops and chaos follows as the state loses its reigns of justice. Some civilisations recovered or reformed, such as the Orinese. Other collapses were more permanent, such as the Aromans.
- The economic crisis in Orioni worsened, forcing the ruling government to amend an imperial law review in 1023. This law review allowed parts of the country to secede as independent states. The Akrep clan took advantage of this opportunity and proclaimed its independence from the Orioni Empire. From their Capital in Meda, they quickly conquered their own hinterland in the east. The received support from malcontent elites, later called the Black Nobility. Outside nations who considered the Orioni Empire a threat secretly supported further annexation of the southern coast by Akrep. Armies from submitted kingdoms -- Medani to the east, Tamarini (present-day Tamurin) to the west -- continued to gain Orinese land, leaving a much-reduced state.
- By 1056 the Akrep controlled large parts of eastern, central and western island. Nearly all lands of the Orioni Empire were conquered.
- In 1063 Akrep, by his own accounts, took control of Hierapolis and installed his royal pretender Empress Ushurphir (meaning: "House of Ushur") on the throne. After the Akrep clan assumed control over the capital, the imperial Orioni household was forced to flee. Only the less accessible northern regions of Semeni and wild Amilaki remained free.
- North of the Mendakh mountains, the Orinese loyalists set up a new rump state as the 'North Orinese Empire'. Former elites set up new temporary court in Dion and other towns to the north. The official royal capital was established in Corona Borealis, a peripheral port of limited maritime commerce, with large international populations of Ide Jimans, Kokuans and Miirosi traders. The wealth of the Orinese elite shifted from land-based tax revenues to overseas maritime trading. After some decades of consilidation the loyalists began executing their plans to reconquer all former states of the Empire.
- In the spring of 1092 Ajonar Akrep led his armies in a major campaign against the northern rump state. To expand his army with more cavalry, Ajonar Akrep married his daughter to Uthman ibn Naissa, a Europan warlord. His forces suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Dion where Ajonar, temporarily halting their war. A serious weakness amongst the Akrep conquerors was the ethnic tension between Medanese and foreign mercenaries. Although foreigners soldiers made up the bulk of the invading Akrep armies, a sense of discrimination against them was commoon. This festering internal conflict jeopardised their unity.
- After nearly 80 years the civil war had entered a period of stalemate. The Loyalists sent messengers with requests for aid to the northern nations of Nan Gorgwaith, Karthenia and even some Buranian states. Aid was received in the form of skilled sailers. These Darini (Old Buranic: "violent people") proved decisive in undermining the transport of foreign mercenaries from mainland Europa across the sea to Orioni. The loyalists welcomed these privateers as allies, while the Medanese described them as ruthless pirates. One famous privateer was Waldemar Tekeles. He married a royal princess and was permitted to wear the imperial symbol in his hat. After the Civil war the Darini were allowed to settle in northeastern Asehayi in Dari (Tauri) province.
- The first victory in resistance to Akrep rule occurred during the Battle of Cygnus in 1122. A drastic increase of taxes by the Akrep clan provoked several rebellions in central Orioni, which a series of succeeding warlords were unable to suppress. Around 1122, a military expedition was sent in to the north in late summer to suppress the rebellion. The Akrep forces overran much of Cygnus territory, forcing a few hundred rebels to retreat deep into the mountains. From the Yahir mountain fortresses, rebel forces routed the Akrep army, inspiring local villagers to take up arms. Despite further attempts, the Akrep army was unable to conquer the mountain stronghold. Returning in shame, the generals were forced to commit suicide. This rebel victory at Cygnus was hailed as the beginning of the Reconquista.
- The loyalist resistance in the north was aided by several technological innovations, including the introduction of 'Tagmatine fire'. In a situation of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly interlinked during this period. Small, lightly equipped armies reflected how the society had to be on the alert at all times. Forces were capable of moving long distances in short times, allowing a quick return home after sacking a target. In the context of the relative isolation of the Orioni island from the rest of Europa, geographical and cultural differences implied the use of military strategies, tactics and equipment that were markedly different from those found in the rest of Europa during this period. Soldiers typically carried a sword, a lance, and either bow and arrows or a javelin. Armour consisted of a coat of mail over a quilted jacket, extending at least to the knees, a helmet or iron cap, and bracers protecting the arms and thighs, either metal or leather. Shields were round or triangular, made of wood, covered with leather, and protected by an iron band; the shields of knights and nobles would bear the family's coat of arms. Horses were occasionally fitted with a coat of mail as well.
- Between the death of Ajonak II ($year) and 1131, the Akrep-controlled area suffered from internal strife. Small kingdoms, led by the local city governors established their long-wished-for independence. The strife was caused by another possible era of drought. The result was many small city-states each centred around their capital. The local city governors, not subscribing to any larger-scale vision of the Akrep clan, had no qualms about attacking their neighbouring kingdoms whenever they could gain an advantage by doing so. Vikings from northern Europa used this internal division to their advantage, raiding the northwestern coastline and founding the city of Nordhaven in the early 12th Century.
- (Usurpers lose even more territory. Loyalists reach Perseus and Sirius, crossing into Tamarini, cutting off an important source of Medanese reinforcements.)
- The loyalist Reconquista ended with the Fall of Hierapolis in 1174. The Fall of Hierapolis was the capture of the main harbour of the allied Akrep states by a loyalist army of the North Orioni Empire on 29 May 1174. The Orinese were commanded by 41-year-old Sidi Seymond Adhamed (1133-1192), husband of Empress Masaino's second sister, who defeated an army commanded by Akrep-patriarch Artulo. The conquest of Hierapolis followed a 53-day siege that had begun on 6 April 1174. Several rich families fled the city before and after the siege, with the majority of them migrating to Meda.
- After the defeat of the allied Akrep states by the Reconquista in the 12th Century, Artulo Akrep was forced to take his own life and to give up Meda to the restored Second Orioni Empire. After the enforced suicide of Artulo, his widow Jaratab Akrep ($born-$died) maintained the position of the clan by adopting a child from close lineage named Ariya. The adopted child Ariya Akrep took over the charge of the clan; the Akrep clan still exists today.
- Reward loyalists
- 1175: Restoration started. The ruling coalition officially announces plans to move the imperial capital back to O’polis. Imperial capital reestablished in O'polis. Construction of imperial palace heavily influenced by architecture from Tagmatica, the capital of Tagmatium + why?
- 1182: Empress Masaino ($YEARS), having restored the unity of the Empire and establishing major governmental reforms, was well aware that Hierapolis was an unsatisfactory capital. Yet it had been the capital for over a thousand years, and it seemed unthinkable to suggest that the seat of government be moved to a different location. Nonetheless, she decided to move the royal capital to a more secure and defensible location further from the coast. A better location was found upstream of the Wenizi river, on the Altais plateau. Here a new city was built and expanded over 6 year. On 11 May 1182 the new capital was consecrated as Omnipolis ("city of all"), abbreviated to O'polis. Empress Moriino ($YEARS) divided the expanded city into 5 regions and ornamented it with public works worthy of an imperial metropolis. The court was supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of oriental Europa, with treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the Empire.
- $YEAR: The Empress Masaino also reinstituted the Elitism faith as the state religion. The priesthood in return granted her the title ‘The Immortal Soul’.
- 1195: New laws to celebrate 20 years of restoration. <$DocumentName> originated as a successful result to maintain peace between royalist and separatist factions in 1215, as part of the events leading to the outbreak of the Civil War. Many contemporary writers believed that monarchs should rule in accordance with the custom and the law, with the counsel of the leading members of the realm. -> °imperial council
- O'polis becomes capital, because of its more secure inland location. Lessons learned from the difficult to defend position of Hierapolis.
- 1221: year of 3 empresses. $why?
- 1224: Hierapolis sacked following its fall in 1174, refounded as Zuidhaven by Empress Tameino (1221–1232) on the site of the previous city, Hierapolis, which was destroyed in the final days of the civil war, in 1174, by loyalist army of Sidi Adhamed (1143–1192). Zuidhaven was never a politically influential city like O'polis, but the city enjoyed relative peace and steady growth as a prosperous trading city lent by its remarkable position. The site had easy access to the Orinoco river ($RENAME) and had an excellent and spacious harbour. The empress further stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates and on 18 May 1232, she announced that, as in O'polis, free distributions of food would be made to the citizens.
Taneino period (1318–1500)
TL;DR: from 1318–1771; exploration; colonialism.
- 14–15th Century: Equal partnership with other nations, unlike First Empire, an influx of knowledge from all over Europa.
The 14th Century was a period of reconnection between regions that had previously lost contact. This reconnection certainly wasn't always a peaceful event.
- The Empress $Name begins sending forth explorers to eastern and southern Europa. Their mission is to revisit old colonies for overdue taxes. Religious and linguistic influence spreads in these various regions and among the peoples. Further maritime exploration: Tagmatium's Eclipse Of An Empire, 1294–1304
- Renaissance thanks to the migration of Europan scholars and texts to Orioni. In mainland Europa, the Sacred Aroman Realm is defeated by the combined forces of Elite knights and Buran Horde.
- Early modern: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_modern_Europe
- She selected her hometown of O'polis as the new capital of her empire. A centre which was further north than the old capital, less vulnerable to sea raiders and better situated for agriculture. She would rule for $number years. And though she would die in a tragic accident, her life ushered in a new age for the Orient.
- Admiral Tafari goes sailing --> new Golden age in 1500
- Influx of women after "with hunt" in Europa --> Better pharmacy knowledge
- 1450. The awful practice of witch-hunting begin in Europa, lasting for several centuries (1450–1750) leads many knowledgeable women to flee to Orioni, boosting pharmacological knowledge.
- 1472. Sidi Agari claims the south-Europan islands Damak Var and Ayubi for Orioni. An extensive slave trade begins as the Orinese sail into the Haken Bay.
- 15th Century.
- The colonisation of Europan coastal areas (15th Century). Local rulers subdued and brought under the authority of the empire. These colonies were ruled by colonial governours called the Danya (Judge). A Danya is a regal official who runs a colony in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The title as first use in the beginning in the 14th century, when it referred to the local rulers of some smaller islands off the coast of the home islands. After the colonial expansion, at the start of the 15th century, the monarch of Orioni came to appoint numerous Danyas to rule over various parts of their increasingly vast Empire in Europa, Marenesia, and overseas elsewhere. The chosen Danyas of these colonial provinces were empowered to act in place of the monarch. This was an extraordinary break from the centralized traditions of the First Orioni Empire. The administrative organization of the Danyas differed significantly from the feudal forms existing in the rest of post-medieval Europa as their institutions were closer to those of the territories of the Orioni Empire. A central government and the entire Judiciary were ruled substantially by the Danya. The local puppet kings were allowed to keep their titles, but they did not hold possession of the land or sovereignty.
- Admiral Jovan Tafari (1372–1444). It’s a fascinating story if only for the audacity of what the Taneino dynasty at the time was pulling off. Jovan Tafari was a prominent admiral of the Taneino court. The colourful part of the story was that he was part-Europa, a eunuch, a favourite of some in the court, and not so much of others and eventually kind of fell to court intrigue, as all good Second Empire dynasty stories end. He organized a series of what have come to be known as treasure voyages or tribute voyages where he would put together these massive fleets — massive by the standard of the time anyway — sail through the Azure Sea, southwest Europa, all the way to the Occident, you know, flying the flag so to speak. Showing off Taneino dynasty goods, and collecting tribute in turn to you know the Second Empire. So he completes the voyages and was largely the first example of Orioni going out in the world. And the idea’s that in Orioni in the early 1400s had the greatest navy on Eurth. It had the medieval equivalent of aircraft carriers. And yet it didn’t use those aircraft carriers, it didn’t use these great treasure ships to engage in gunboat diplomacy. Adm. Tafari sailed into the Western seas, through the Meteorolas, into the Adlantic Ocean as far away as Occidental Europa, merely to spread wealth and treasure — gifts from the Orinese empress. It was peaceful, it was about building a community of nations that would share and trade with each other and exchange gifts. And it was all — this is the parable for Orioni’s peaceful rise. One of the tasks he was commissioned with was to collect back taxes from Orinese who had settled through the island parts of southwest Europa. The Jovan Tafari voyages were not voyages of exploration. They were for purposes of commerce in general, going around promoting trade with the restored Orioni Empire. But they were also accompanied by this contingent of marines. And when necessary, they would get forceful. And so the idea that this was a voyage of friendship and that Jovan Tafari was just going around delivering messages of love and goodwill from the Orinese empress, there was a little bit of that in these statements he would present. But in general, the point here was commerce and when possible recouping revenue from Orinese who had strayed outside the borders of the country. There were seven of there voyages in about three decades. All seven under the command of that one admiral. There was actually a bunch of others — there wasn’t just the one treasure fleet. And even the treasure fleet was composed of several sub-fleets. And this wasn’t the only thing that the Orinese navy was doing on the ocean seas at that time. After those first voyages, the Orinese state retained that kind of overwhelming focus on the oceans. It maintained a significant ability to project power in its immediate maritime environment. For the folks looking at Chinese maritime history, everything starts with Jovan Tafari.
- With fiery rhetoric, the Empress proclaimed that where the flag of the Empire was raised, never would it be lowered.
- From the 14th to 15th century, Orioni paid its armies in promises of land and wealth. It was very common in campaigns to confiscate the lands and wealth of rebel tribes or enemy forces. As a result, this was also the payment given to the clans that agreed to provide soldiers to the Empress in her conflicts. For example, a 14th Century Orinese source described the acquisition of several towns during the conquests in Niederoestereich. The Empress wouldn’t keep the wealth from this land. They followed a rule: the Empress received a 1/5 share, while the remaining 80% were distributed among the soldiers. They used large tracts of land as a source of wealth, bringing in peasants to farm it, or by having their entire tribe move there. If an area could not be conquered, it was often plundered.
- Easy to conquer coastal areas. The military had experience with previous islands they submitted. This turned out to be much more difficult when marching inland, away from the supplies and reinforcements.
Oino period (1500–1663)
- 1500: New Golden Age
- 1517: Slave armies. When the Oino dynasty took power in the 16th Century, they adopted the practice of Slave Armies. Using their share of the spoils from previous conquests, they purchased large numbers of Europan youths. These slave soldiers spent years transforming into the perfect soldiers. Orioni used their slave army in West-Europa to great success, deploying several thousand slave soldiers across the Memopotamian coasts in a fight against to take the gold and salt mines. Unlike the earlier tribal armies, the Slave army wouldn’t plunder the mines. Instead, they sent all captured treasure back to the Empress. This made her rich and perpetuated the slave soldier system. The main appeal of the Slave army was its staunch loyalty and low cost. The Empress never paid the Slaves. Instead, when reaching the age of 40, they were “paid” in freedom and received a small plot of land in conquered territory.
- 1521 onward: Which areas are colonies? Establishment of Viceroyalties. Merchants suffer from piracy threat.
- 1584: Imakura college is founded by Empress Igado.
- 1593–1606: Thirteen Years' War was an indecisive land war between the Memopotamian sultanates and the Orioni Empire. In Ayubi the defenders were slaughtered, leaving the island open to the Orinese, and Jawin was occupied. Towns were burnt and many people died. Both Mahdavic and Sahrabic sources attest that prisoners awaited a gruesome faith. Wire was threaded through the palms of the prisoners, who were strung along the prows of the Orinese ships as a necklace.
- 1618 (Golden Ratio): do something Renaissance-like with this.
- 16 February 1634: Captain Ortega arrives in Rohini.
- 1644: First voyage to the New Wurld.
- Fatuma binti Yusuf al-Alawi (c. 1650 – 1715), queen of Zanzibar.
- 15–17th Century: Interaction and integration with greater Eurth. Which alliances are formed? Orsini family in Tagmatium
Owara period (1663–1709)
- Vayiresini = viceroyalty
- Pirate menace (17–18th Century) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Age_of_Piracy
- Euhemerism https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euhemerism
Ogimachi period (1709–1771)
The 18th Century was a period marked by economic expansion and internationalisation.
- 1731: Abolition of slavery. In the first half of the eighteenth century, as imperial conflicts increased in scale, the slave owners struggled continuously to keep their restive slaves under the yoke. In this contentious atmosphere, a movement of enslaved continental Europans organised to throw off that yoke by violence. Their uprising featured a style of fighting increasingly familiar today: scattered militias opposing great powers, with fighters hard to distinguish from noncombatants. It was also part of a more extended borderless conflict that spread from Azania to Amutia and across the Orient. Even after it was put down, the insurgency rumbled throughout the Orinese Empire at a time when slavery seemed the dependable bedrock of its dominion.
- 1740: Financial bubble
- 1745: Political Revolutions
Omei period (1771–1867)
- 19th Century: Industrialisation leads to a rapid expansion of resource-rich north, previously a predominantly agrarian society
- The Orioni Empire entered a period of decline brought on by revolutions, piracy, and Europan colonial expansion. This decline accelerated in the 19th century.
- 1843: Decolonisation of Baribeni islands, present-day Bainbridge Islands.
- 1848: Europa experienced a wave of revolutions and rising nationalism. New machinery replaced manual labour. Farmers moved into cities, suffering from economic displacement. Feudal systems of government had functioned for agrarian, subsistence economies. But they were proving ineffective for this more international Eurth. The problem worsened because of one-crop agriculture, raising the chances for disaster. Failed harvests resulted in either mass starvation or emigration.
Nabérrie period (1867–present)
Rule of the Nabérrie dynasty begins in 1867 with Empress Jomi Nabérrie. This period is defined by decolonisation and globalisation. At first, the 19-20th Century are marked by rising tension between regions, then better cooperation through marriage ties among leading families and clans.
- 1867 - Jomi Nabérrie becomes empress.
- 1879 - Economic crisis.
- 1894 - Economic crisis.
- 1901 - Decolonisation of Astrini island, present-day Niederoestereich.
- 1910 - Deep economic crisis, voting rights, more regular elections.
- 1912 - Oshita Nabérrie becomes empress.
- 1912 - Suppression of a revolt on Rohini island. In order to calm the situation, the empress granted a number of concessions, including the establishment of Rohinese schools, the end of conscription, and suspension of taxes for five years.
- 1926 - Owa Nabérrie becomes empress.
- 1927 - Economic crisis.
- 1928 - Plebist-leaning military officers, led by Colonel Nawa Molo, attempt a coup d'état which ultimately fails.
- 1943 - Economic crisis.
- 1949 - Decolonisation of Rohini island.
- 1955 - Decolonisation of Burkini island.
- 1956 - Internationalisation via the Entente of Oriental States.
- 1958 - Economic crisis.
- 1979–1983 - Government of $NAME.
- 1974 - Deep economic crisis.
- 1983–1987 - Government of $NAME.
- 1987–1991 - Government of $NAME.
- 1989 - Hensei Nabérrie becomes empress.
- 1991 - Economic crisis.
- 1991–1995 - Government of $NAME.
- 1995–1999 - Government of $NAME.
- 1999-2003 - Government of $NAME.
- 2003-2007 - Government of Pristo I. Ends with an economic crisis.
- 2004 - Joni Nabérrie becomes empress.
- 2007 - Economic crisis.
- 2007-2011 - Government of Strupar I. Marked be recovery from the economic crisis.
- 2011-2015 - Government of Strupar II.
- 2015-2019 - Government of Pristo II.
- 2019-2023 - Government of $NAME.
- 2021 - Celebration of the Trillennium, or 3000 years of Monarchy in Orioni.
- 2022 - Economic crisis.
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